Crystal structure of holo inorganic pyrophosphatase from Escherichia coli at 1.9 A resolution. Mechanism of hydrolysis.
ABSTRACT Crystalline holo inorganic pyrophosphatase from Escherichia coli was grown in the presence of 250 mM MgCl2. The crystal structure has been solved by Patterson search techniques and refined to an R-factor of 17.6% at 1.9 A resolution. The upper estimate of the root-mean-square error in atomic positions is 0.26 A. These crystals belong to space group P3(2)21 with unit cell dimensions a = b = 110.27 A and c = 78.17 A. The asymmetric unit contains a trimer of subunits, i.e., half of the hexameric molecule. In the central cavity of the enzyme molecule, three Mg2+ ions, each shared by two subunits of the hexamer, are found. In the active sites of two crystallographically independent subunits, two Mg2+ ions are bound. The second active site Mg2+ ion is missing in the third subunit. A mechanism of catalysis is proposed whereby a water molecule activated by a Mg2+ ion and Tyr 55 play essential roles.
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ABSTRACT: The first crystal structure of an inorganic pyrophosphatase (S-PPase) from an archaebacterium, the thermophile Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, has been solved by molecular replacement and refined to an R-factor of 19.7% at 2.7 Å. S-PPase is a D3 homohexameric protein with one Mg2+ per active site in a position similar to, but not identical with, the first activating metal in mesophilic pyrophosphatases (PPase). In mesophilic PPases, Asp65, Asp70, and Asp102 coordinate the Mg2+ while only Asp65 and Asp102 do in S-PPase, and the Mg2+ moves by 0.7 Å. S-PPase may therefore be deactivated at low temperature by mispositioning a key metal ion.The monomer S-PPase structure is very similar to that of Thermus thermophilus (T-PPase) and Escherichia coli (E-PPase), root-mean-square deviations around 1 Å/Cα. But the hexamer structures of S-and T-PPase are more tightly packed and more similar to each other than they are to that of E-PPase, as shown by the increase in surface area buried upon oligomerization. In T-PPase, Arg116 creates an interlocking ionic network to both twofold and threefold related monomers; S-PPase has hydrophilic interactions to threefold related monomers absent in both E-and T-PPase. In addition, the thermostable PPases have about 7% more hydrogen bonds per monomer than E-PPase, and, especially in S-PPase, additional ionic interactions anchor the C-terminus to the rest of the protein. Thermostability in PPases is thus due to subtle improvements in both monomer and oligomer interactions.Protein Science 12/1998; 8(6):1218 - 1231. DOI:10.1110/ps.8.6.1218 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular Mg(2+) directly modulates voltage-dependent activation in ether-à-go-go (eag) potassium channels, slowing the kinetics of ionic and gating currents (Tang, C.-Y., F. Bezanilla, and D.M. Papazian. 2000. J. Gen. Physiol. 115:319-337). To exert its effect, Mg(2+) presumably binds to a site in or near the eag voltage sensor. We have tested the hypothesis that acidic residues unique to eag family members, located in transmembrane segments S2 and S3, contribute to the Mg(2+)-binding site. Two eag-specific acidic residues and three acidic residues found in the S2 and S3 segments of all voltage-dependent K(+) channels were individually mutated in Drosophila eag, mutant channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the effect of Mg(2+) on ionic current kinetics was measured using a two electrode voltage clamp. Neutralization of eag-specific residues D278 in S2 and D327 in S3 eliminated Mg(2+)-sensitivity and mimicked the slowing of activation kinetics caused by Mg(2+) binding to the wild-type channel. These results suggest that Mg(2+) modulates activation kinetics in wild-type eag by screening the negatively charged side chains of D278 and D327. Therefore, these residues are likely to coordinate the bound ion. In contrast, neutralization of the widely conserved residues D284 in S2 and D319 in S3 preserved the fast kinetics seen in wild-type eag in the absence of Mg(2+), indicating that D284 and D319 do not mediate the slowing of activation caused by Mg(2+) binding. Mutations at D284 affected the eag gating pathway, shifting the voltage dependence of Mg(2+)-sensitive, rate limiting transitions in the hyperpolarized direction. Another widely conserved residue, D274 in S2, is not required for Mg(2+) sensitivity but is in the vicinity of the binding site. We conclude that Mg(2+) binds in a water-filled pocket between S2 and S3 and thereby modulates voltage-dependent gating. The identification of this site constrains the packing of transmembrane segments in the voltage sensor of K(+) channels, and suggests a molecular mechanism by which extracellular cations modulate eag activation kinetics.The Journal of General Physiology 12/2000; 116(5):663-78. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An open reading frame located in the COTF-TETB intergenic region of Bacillus subtilis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to encode inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase). The isolated enzyme is Mn2+-activated, like the authentic PPase isolated from B. subtilis. Although 13 functionally important active site residues are conserved in all 31 soluble PPase sequences so far identified, only two of them are conserved in B. subtilis PPase. This suggests that B. subtilis PPase represents a new family of soluble PPases (a Bs family), putative members of which were found in Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanococcus jannaschii, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii.FEBS Letters 12/1998; 439(3):263-6. DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01381-7 · 3.34 Impact Factor