The utility of frozen section (FS) examination in the intraoperative management of breast lesions is well established. The accuracy of FS in the diagnosis of borderline noninvasive or preinvasive breast lesions is uncertain.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the results of intraoperative consultations/frozen section examinations of 181 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Various clinical and pathologic factors were analyzed and correlated with FS diagnosis.
FS examination was performed on 153 cases (85%) and only macroscopic examination on 28 cases (15%). FS diagnoses were as follows: DCIS in 76 cases (50%), atypical ductal hyperplasia/suspicious for DCIS in 8 cases (5%), benign in 55 cases (36%), deferred in 13 cases (8%), and invasive carcinoma in 1 case. FS accuracy, false-negative rate, and false-positive rate were 55%, 36%, and 0.6%, respectively. Sampling error was the main reason for the low detection rate, and technical inadequacy was a major factor contributing to interpretive problems. In multivariate regression analysis, FS accuracy was significantly associated with the clinical presentation of a palpable mass (odds ratio [OR] = 4.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.04-8.45), the macroscopic finding of a mass (OR = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.45-6.67), and necrosis (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.4-6.67).
The authors concluded that the accuracy of FS diagnosis of DCIS was low, mainly due to sampling error. In general, FS examination should not be performed when no lesion/mass is identified by macroscopic examination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed our image-guided core needle breast biopsy (IGCNBB) experience with patients diagnosed with invasive carcinoma (IC) to determine the accuracy of a core biopsy diagnosis of invasion and our ability to perform a single definitive cancer operation.
All IGCNBBs between July 1993 and July 1997 were reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with IC. Data included initial surgical treatment, surgical pathology, and subsequent surgical treatment.
Of the 1,676 biopsies, invasive carcinoma was diagnosed in 208 with follow-up in 204 cases. Invasive carcinoma diagnosis was confirmed in 202 of 204 cases (99%). One hundred ninety-two patients had surgical treatment. Of these 192 patients, 173 (90%) could have achieved definitive surgical treatment with a single operation.
An IGCNBB diagnosis of IC is accurate and allows for definitive breast cancer therapy. The potential impact on patient management is that a single operation can usually accomplish what traditionally has required at least two surgical procedures.
The American Journal of Surgery 01/1999; 176(6):497-501. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9610(98)00250-5 · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By introducing mammography screening programmes, the size of the detected breast lesions became smaller and the histopathological interpretation problems greater. The study's aim was to analyse the risks and possible limitations of the frozen section method.
Frozen section consultations of breast lesions (n=559) 2 years before and 6 years after launching a national mammographic screening programme in 1992 were evaluated in regard of the benign/malignant ratio, tumour size, preoperative frozen section results and final permanent section diagnoses. The breast frozen section examinations of 1990 compared with those from 1998 declined from 70.7% (299/423) to 62.2% (260/418) (P < 0.01), the benign/malignant ratio from 1.09 to 0.54 (P < 0.0001), the rate of the conclusive, correct frozen section diagnoses from 96.3% to 91.9% (P < 0.03). The sensitivity dropped from 92.3% to 87.6%, the negative predictive value from 95.7% to 88.3%, whereas the negative likelihood ratio rose from 0.08 to 0.12. The 'small' (< or = 10 mm) invasive breast carcinomas increased from 14.2% to 22.3% (P < 0.01) and the 'in situ' carcinomas from 2.1% to 6.6% (P < 0.05).
The declining sizes of breast tumours (< or = 10 mm), especially from radiologically detected lesions and sometimes without a macroscopic correlate, create new limitations and changing indications in the histopathological interpretation. Considering the performance of new diagnostic methods (i.e. large core needle biopsies), frozen sections of surgical specimens should not be the primary diagnostic procedure for breast lesions and should be performed only after other preoperative methods have failed.
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