Article

Stimulation of Sky tyrosine phosphorylation by bovine protein S--domains involved in the receptor-ligand interaction.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Lund University, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
European Journal of Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.58). 06/1997; 246(1):147-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-2-00147.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Protein S is an anticoagulant vitamin-K-dependent plasma glycoprotein, which acts as a cofactor to activated protein C in the degradation of coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. It has been proposed that protein S has an additional function as a growth factor. Protein S and a structurally similar protein, Gas6, have been found to stimulate members of the Axl/Sky family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Human Gas6 is able to activate Axl and Sky. In contrast, while bovine protein S activates human Sky and its murine homologue, human protein S activates murine Sky but not the human receptor. In the present investigation, we studied the structural background of this species difference. Using protein S chimeras with domains from human and bovine origin, we found that only those chimeras with the steroid-hormone-binding globulin-like (SHBG) region from bovine protein S activate human Sky, indicating that the SHBG region is essential for the interaction. This observation was confirmed by inhibition of Sky phosphorylation by C4b-binding protein, a plasma protein that interacts tightly with the SHBG region of protein S. Another chimeric molecule, composed of the N-terminal 4-carboxyglutamic-acid-containing domain (Gla domain) and the two epidermal-growth-factor-like domains of human factor IX, and the SHBG region of bovine protein S, stimulated the receptor less efficiently. Antibodies directed against the Gla domain of protein S, inhibited the activation of human Sky by bovine protein S. These results indicate that the N-terminal domains of protein S are not essential for activation of the receptor, but contribute to the affinity of the interaction. Our data suggest that protein S might be a ligand of Sky in some species despite the lack of activity of human protein S on human Sky. The bovine/human protein S species difference will be a useful model to establish the structural requirements for the interaction between Sky and its ligands.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
50 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The TAM receptors-Tyro3, Axl, and Mer-comprise a unique family of receptor tyrosine kinases, in that as a group they play no essential role in embryonic development. Instead, they function as homeostatic regulators in adult tissues and organ systems that are subject to continuous challenge and renewal throughout life. Their regulatory roles are prominent in the mature immune, reproductive, hematopoietic, vascular, and nervous systems. The TAMs and their ligands-Gas6 and Protein S-are essential for the efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and membranes in these tissues; and in the immune system, theyact as pleiotropic inhibitors of the innate inflammatory response to pathogens. Deficiencies in TAM signaling are thought to contribute to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in humans, and aberrantly elevated TAM signaling is strongly associated with cancer progression, metastasis, and resistance to targeted therapies.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 11/2013; 5(11):a009076-a009076. DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a009076 · 8.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)-TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK-together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 33 is March 21, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Immunology 01/2015; 33(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-immunol-032414-112103 · 41.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : Three receptor tyrosine kinases, Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAM) and their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, have emerged as potent negative regulators of innate immune responses. A number of studies using genetic ablation of TAM loci in mice have elucidated the mechanism of TAM engagement and function during the immune response and removal of apoptotic cells. Following phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or the induction of T-cell dependent adaptive immune responses, ligand-induced TAM signaling dampens proinflammatory cytokine production and thus prevents exaggerated or prolonged inflammation. It is believed that the TAM pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Suppression of inflammation and removal of apoptotic cells followed by tissue repair are essential processes for disease remission and the successful management of inflammatory bowel disease. In light of the key role of TAMs in controlling inflammatory responses, here, we review the recent advances on TAM research vis-à-vis the resolution of intestinal inflammation. Targeted activation of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases may represent a potent therapeutic opportunity in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 05/2014; 20(8). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000050 · 5.12 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
2 Downloads