Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key factor in bone remodeling. In osteoblasts, IGF-I synthesis is enhanced by parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through cAMP-activated protein kinase. In rats, estrogen loss after ovariectomy leads to a rise in serum IGF-I and an increase in bone remodeling, both of which are reversed by estrogen treatment. To examine estrogen-dependent regulation of IGF-I expression at the molecular level, primary fetal rat osteoblasts were co-transfected with the estrogen receptor (hER, to ensure active ER expression), and luciferase reporter plasmids controlled by promoter 1 of the rat IGF-I gene (IGF-I P1), used exclusively in these cells. As reported, 1 microM PGE2 increased IGF-I P1 activity by 5-fold. 17beta-Estradiol alone had no effect, but dose-dependently suppressed the stimulatory effect of PGE2 by up to 90% (ED50 approximately 0.1 nM). This occurred within 3 h, persisted for at least 16 h, required ER, and appeared specific, since 17alpha-estradiol was 100-300-fold less effective. By contrast, 17beta-estradiol stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent reporter expression by up to 10-fold. 17beta-Estradiol also suppressed an IGF-I P1 construct retaining only minimal promoter sequence required for cAMP-dependent gene activation, but did not affect the 60-fold increase in cAMP induced by PGE2. There is no consensus ERE in rat IGF-I P1, suggesting novel downstream interactions in the cAMP pathway that normally enhances IGF-I expression in skeletal cells. To explore this, nuclear extract from osteoblasts expressing hER were examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the atypical cAMP response element in IGF-I P1. Estrogen alone did not cause DNA-protein binding, while PGE2 induced a characteristic gel shift complex. Co-treatment with both hormones caused a gel shift greatly diminished in intensity, consistent with their combined effects on IGF-I promoter activity. Nonetheless, hER did not bind IGF-I cAMP response element or any adjacent sequences. These results provide new molecular evidence that estrogen may temper the biological effects of hormones acting through cAMP to regulate skeletal IGF-I expression and activity.
"Gender differences in the response of bone to PTH · Y WANG and others 285 www.endocrinology-journals.org by estrogen on IGF-I synthesis by osteoblasts (Watson et al. 1995, Nasu et al. 2000), recent findings indicate that the influence of estrogen on IGF-I gene expression is complex and perhaps indirect (McCarthy et al. 1997). Estrogen is able to diminish IGF-I gene activation by PTH or PGE2 as well as by GH (McCarthy & Centrella 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerts both catabolic and anabolic actions on bone. Studies on the skeletal effects of PTH have seldom considered the effects of gender. Our study was designed to determine whether the response of mouse bone to PTH differed according to sex. As a first step, we analyzed gender differences with respect to bone mass and structural properties of 4 month old PTH treated (80 microg/kg per day for 2 weeks) male and female CD-1 mice. PTH significantly increased fat free weight/body weight, periosteal bone formation rate, mineral apposition rate, and endosteal single labeling surface, while significantly decreasing medullary area in male mice compared with vehicle treated controls, but induced no significant changes in female mice. We then analyzed the gender differences in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) isolated from 4 month old male and female CD-1 mice following treatment with PTH (80 microg/kg per day for 2 weeks). PTH significantly increased the osteogenic colony number and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (ALP/cell) by day 14 in cultures of BMSCs from male and female mice. PTH also increased the mRNA level of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand in the bone tissue (marrow removed) of both females and males. However, PTH increased the mRNA levels of IGF-I and IGF-IR only in the bones of male mice. Our results indicate that on balance a 2-weeks course of PTH is anabolic on cortical bone in this mouse strain. These effects are more evident in the male mouse. These differences between male and female mice may reflect the greater response to PTH of IGF-I and IGF-IR gene expression in males enhancing the anabolic effect on cortical bone.
Journal of Endocrinology 06/2006; 189(2):279-87. DOI:10.1677/joe.1.06351 · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of 24-months of recreational artistic gymnastics participation on plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and bone were assessed in prepubertal females, four to eight years of age, with no history of sports participation. Over 24-months, log IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 increased in gymnasts (n=48) and controls (n=66). When gymnasts and controls were combined, the 24-month log IGF-I and total body bone area, bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD), lumbar spine BMC and aBMD, femur BMC and aBMD, narrow neck cross sectional area (CSA), intertrochanteric CSA and section modulus (Z) and shaft Z were correlated. Negative correlations were observed between hours of gymnastics participation and the 24-month gain in log IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I/IFGBP-3. The lack of a marked IGF response and the small bone response to participation in recreational artistic gymnastics in the current project may be partially related to the young age of participants.
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