Molecular typing of HLA class I and class II antigens in Indian kala-azar patients.

Department of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
Tropical Medicine & International Health (Impact Factor: 2.94). 06/1997; 2(5):468-71. DOI: 10.1016/0198-8859(96)85378-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HLA has been shown to be associated with many diseases. To find out whether host genetic factors like the HLA are involved in susceptibility to kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in India, we formulated an association study with genetically related controls. All samples were typed by PCR SSOP (sequence specific oligonucleotide probes) for HLA class I (A and B) and class II (DR) antigens. The test of association we used was the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). No significant evidence for association with any of the three HLA loci was obtained.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human impact of visceral leishmaniasis is significant. Some 500,000 new cases are reported annually, and epidemics may decimate local populations. A more complete understanding of the human immune response and its pathological consequences are needed for the design of vaccines and for improvements in therapy. This will require more thorough clinical investigation, and also a better appreciation of the usefulness and limitations of animal models. This review will concentrate on recent observations on patients with active VL. It will summarize recent progress in studies using a murine model that may have most bearing on human disease. Finally, it discusses future research directions aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of VL.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ninety per cent of the 500,000 annual new cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in India/Bangladesh/Nepal, Sudan and Brazil. Importantly, 80-90% of human infections are sub-clinical or asymptomatic, usually associated with strong cell-mediated immunity. Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors that determine why two people with the same exposure to infection differ in susceptibility could provide important leads for improved therapies. Recent research using candidate gene association analysis and genome-wide linkage studies (GWLS) in collections of families from Sudan, Brazil and India have identified a number of genes/regions related both to environmental risk factors (e.g. iron), as well as genes that determine type 1 vs. type 2 cellular immune responses. However, until now all of the allelic association studies carried out have been underpowered to find genes of small effect sizes (odds ratios or OR < 2), and GWLS using multicase pedigrees have only been powered to find single major genes, or at best oligogenic control. The accumulation of large DNA banks from India and Brazil now makes it possible to undertake genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are ongoing as part of phase 2 of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Data from this analysis should seed research into novel genes and mechanisms that influence susceptibility to VL.
    Parasite Immunology 06/2009; 31(5):254-66. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1-4 Most studies have found the primary non response rate to recombinant hepatitis B vaccination to range between 5% and 10%. Factors that have been linked to non-response include age, sex, obesity, smoking, diabetes and chronic renal failure. 1,4,5-7 But these factors alone cannot explain all causes of non-response. It has The average age of the responders was 44.6 ± 6.9 years. The male-to-female ratio in the responder population was 4:1 while in the non-responder population it was 8:7. Table 1 shows the frequency of specific HLA types among responders and non-responders. Haplotypes with the highest frequencies among non responders (compared to responders) were HLA A1 and B15 (5-times) following by B40 (3 times), and A10 and DQ2 (2.5 times). DR 52 was present in a frequency of 11/15 (73.3%) in equal measure in both groups. HLA A1 and B15 were present among 5/15 of the non-responders (33.3%) but only 1/15 of the responder population (6.7%). HLA DR53 was more frequent in the non- responders (7/15, 46.7%) compared to the responders (5/15, 33.3%). The most common HLA phenotypes in the responder population were HLA - A11, C3, DR10 and DR51. These differences in frequencies were however non-significant (p>0.05).