Molecular typing of HLA class I and class II antigens in Indian kala-azar patients.

Department of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
Tropical Medicine & International Health (Impact Factor: 2.94). 06/1997; 2(5):468-71. DOI: 10.1016/0198-8859(96)85378-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HLA has been shown to be associated with many diseases. To find out whether host genetic factors like the HLA are involved in susceptibility to kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in India, we formulated an association study with genetically related controls. All samples were typed by PCR SSOP (sequence specific oligonucleotide probes) for HLA class I (A and B) and class II (DR) antigens. The test of association we used was the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). No significant evidence for association with any of the three HLA loci was obtained.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kala azar (KA) is a lethal disease caused by Leishmania parasites (Leishmania donovani s.l.) that multiply in large numbers in deep organs such as spleen and liver. The host immunological response to these organisms is complex and experimental studies in animals have detected a large number of genetic loci involved in the control of infection and disease. We report here on a study in a human population of Sudan carried out during an outbreak of KA. The following conclusions are presented: (1) environmental factors that could have affected the distribution of the insect vector, influenced progression of KA in the initial phase of the epidemics - but they became less important later at the peak of transmission, probably after infected phlebotomies had spread to all parts of the village -; (2) Leishmania population during the epidemics was heterogeneous, suggesting a possible parasite evolution during the outbreak; (3) the incidence of KA varied markedly among age groups, families and ethnic groups. Susceptibility to KA was shown to depend on a locus on chromosomes 22q12 and on NRAMP1 on chromosome 2q35; the data also suggested a third locus in the region 2q23-q24. Overall, this study indicates complex interactions between host genes and environment in the spreading of KA in that population. It is also suspected that the large parasite diversity observed in the outbreak has contributed to disease spreading across host genetic barriers.
    Comptes Rendus Biologies 12/2006; 329(11):863-70. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmania are digenetic protozoa which inhabit two highly specific hosts, the sandfly where they grow as motile, flagellated promastigotes in the gut, and the mammalian macrophage where they grow intracellularly as non-flagellated amastigotes. Leishmaniasis is the outcome of an evolutionary 'arms race' between the host's immune system and the parasite's evasion mechanisms which ensure survival and transmission in the population. The spectrum of disease manifestations and severity reflects the interaction between the genome of the host and that of the parasite, and the pathology is caused by a combination of host and parasite molecules. This chapter examines the genetic basis of host susceptibility to disease in humans and animal models. It describes the genetic tools used to map and identify susceptibility genes, and the lessons learned from murine and human cutaneous leishmaniasis.
    Advances in Parasitology 02/2005; 59:1-75. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Familial aggregation, high relative risk to siblings, and segregation analysis, suggest genetic control of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Class II gene effects in mice, and high circulating tumour necrosis factor alpha in humans, provide reasons to target HLA. Fifteen polymorphic markers across 1.03 Mb (DQB1 to TNFa) were genotyped (87 multicase families; 638 individuals). Model-based parametric analyses using single-point combined segregation and linkage in COMDS, or multi-point linkage in ALLEGRO, failed to detect linkage. Model-free nonparametric affected sibling pair (SPLINK) or NPL(all) score (ALLEGRO) analyses also failed to detect linkage. Information content mapping confirmed sufficient marker information to detect linkage. Analysis of simulated data sets demonstrated that these families had 100% power to detect NPL(all) scores of 5 to 6 (>LOD4; P < 0.00001) over the range (7% to 61%) of age-related penetrances for a disease susceptibility gene. The extended transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed no consistent allelic associations between disease and the 15 loci. TDT also failed to detect significant associations between extended haplotypes and disease, consistent with failure to detect significant linkage disequilibrium across the region. Linkage disequilibrium between adjacent groups of markers (HLADQ/DR; 82-1/82-3/-238bpTNFA; LTA/62/TNFa) was not accompanied by significant global haplotype TDT associations with disease. The data suggest that class II/III regions of HLA do not contain major disease gene(s) for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.
    Genes and Immunity 10/2002; 3(6):350-8. · 3.68 Impact Factor