The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) disorders in experimental and human carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT There is a growing body of evidence supporting the etiologic implication of gap junctional intercellular communication disorders in carcinogenesis. Substantial progress has recently been made both in molecular biology of gap junction and in the field of cancer research. They provide new insights and conceptions of gap junctional disorders in tumor pathology. Modern understanding of the structure, function and regulation of gap junctions, as well as putative mechanisms of its disorders in human and experimental carcinogenesis are discussed in this review with particular emphasis on fast-moving aspects of this problem.
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ABSTRACT: Research on oxidative stress focused primarily on determining how reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage cells by indiscriminate reactions with their macromolecular machinery, particularly lipids, proteins, and DNA. However, many chronic diseases are not always a consequence of tissue necrosis, DNA, or protein damage, but rather to altered gene expression. Gene expression is highly regulated by the coordination of cell signaling systems that maintain tissue homeostasis. Therefore, much research has shifted to the understanding of how ROS reversibly control gene expression through cell signaling mechanisms. However, most research has focused on redox regulation of signal transduction within a cell, but we introduce a more comprehensive-systems biology approach to understanding oxidative signaling that includes gap junctional intercellular communication, which plays a role in coordinating gene expression between cells of a tissue needed to maintain tissue homeostasis. We propose a hypothesis that gap junctions are critical in modulating the levels of second messengers, such as low molecular weight reactive oxygen, needed in the transduction of an external signal to the nucleus in the expression of genes. Thus, any comprehensive-systems biology approach to understanding oxidative signaling must also include gap junctions, in which aberrant gap junctions have been clearly implicated in many human diseases.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 11/2008; 11(2):297-307. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gap junctions, composed of Cxs (connexins), allow direct intercellular communication. Gap junctions are often lost during the development of malignancy, although the processes behind this are not fully understood. Cx43 is a widely expressed Cx with a long cytoplasmic C-terminal tail that contains several potential protein-interaction domains. Previously, in a model of cervical carcinogenesis, we showed that the loss of gap junctional communication correlated with relocalization of Cx43 to the cytoplasm late in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate a similar pattern of altered expression for the hDlg (human discs large) MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) family tumour suppressor protein in cervical tumour cells, with partial co-localization of Cx43 and hDlg in an endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Relocalization of these proteins is not due to a general disruption of cell membrane integrity or Cx targeting. Cx43 (via its C-terminus) and hDlg interact directly in vitro and can form a complex in cells. This novel interaction requires the N- and C-termini of hDlg. hDlg is not required for Cx43 internalization in W12GPXY cells. Instead, hDlg appears to have a role in maintaining a cytoplasmic pool of Cx43. These results demonstrate that hDlg is a physiologically relevant regulator of Cx43 in transformed epithelial cells.Biochemical Journal 06/2012; 446(1):9-21. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Expression of connexins and other constituent proteins of gap junctions along with gap junctional intercellular communication are involved in cellular development and differentiation processes. In addition, an increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be linked to connexins. Therefore, in this report, the authors studied in vitro gap junctional intercellular communication function and connexin expression in fibroblasts derived from keloid and hypertrophic scar patients. Fibroblasts harvested from each of six keloid and hypertrophic scar patients were used for this study. Gap junctional intercellular communication function was investigated using the gap fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method, and expression of connexin proteins was studied using quantitative confocal microscopic analyses. Compared with normal skin, a decreased level of gap junctional intercellular communication was seen in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar tissue, whereas an extremely low gap junctional intercellular communication level was detected in fibroblasts derived from keloid tissue. We also detected little connexin 43 (Cx43) protein localized in fibroblasts derived from keloids. Moreover, Cx43 protein levels were much lower in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars than in those derived from normal skin. The authors' data suggest that the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication and connexin expression may affect intercellular recognition and thus break the proliferation and apoptosis balance in fibroblasts derived from keloid and hypertrophic scar tissue.Plastic and reconstructive surgery 04/2007; 119(3):844-51. · 2.74 Impact Factor