Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage as a marker for subsequent staphylococcal infections in intensive care unit patients
From January to December 1994, 752 consecutive patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for more than two days were studied prospectively for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. Nasal swabs were obtained at admission and weekly during the ICU stay. At ICU admission 166 patients (22.1%) were Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers, while 586 were free of nasal colonization. Of the 166 nasal carriers, 163 harbored methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). During the ICU stay 24 of the 586 noncolonized patients became nasal carriers (11 MSSA and 13 MRSA), and one nasal carrier initially colonized by MSSA was reconlonized by MRSA. Staphylococcal infections were documented in 51 (6.8%) of the total 752 patients. After 14 days of ICU stay, the probability of developing staphylococcal infections was significantly higher for those patients who were nasal carriers at ICU admission than for those found to be initially negative (relative risk 59.6, 95% CI 20.37-184.32; p < 0.0001). In patients with ICU-acquired nasal colonization, most infections were documented prior to or at the time of the detection of the nasal colonization; thus, in this group of patients nasal carriage showed a lower predictive value for subsequent Staphylococcus aureus infections that that described classically. Paired isolates of nasal colonizing and clinical strains were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and mecA polymorphism analysis in 30 patients; identity was demonstrated in all but two patients. The results suggest that, outside the setting of an outbreak of MRSA, the detection of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers on admission may be particularly useful in identifying those patients who are at high risk for developing staphylococcal infections during their ICU stay.
Available from: Céire Costelloe
- "A study by Corbella et al.  examined nasal carriage of MRSA in patients admitted to hospital and subsequently admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for more than 2 days. The results showed that outside the setting of an outbreak of MRSA, the probability of developing resistant staphylococcal infection was significantly higher for those patients who were nasal carriers at ICU admission compared with those found to be initially negative . Another study carried out in a sample of US soldiers measured MRSA colonisation status at two different time points (at baseline and at 2 months). "
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between primary care antibiotics prescribed within 2 months and 12 months and the carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal flora from a large representative sample of community-resident adults. S. aureus isolates were obtained from nasal samples submitted by UK resident adults aged ≥ 16 years registered with 12 general practices in the former Avon and Gloucestershire health authority areas. Individual-level antibiotic exposure data during the 12 months prior to providing the samples were collected from the primary care electronic records. MRSA status was determined by measuring resistance to cefoxitin. In total, 6937 adults were invited to take part, of whom 5917 returned a nasal sample. S. aureus was identified in 946 samples and a total of 761 participants consented to primary care record review and had complete data for the analyses. There was no evidence of an association between any antibiotic in the previous 2 months and MRSA isolation, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-15; P=0.8]. There was a suggestion of an association between any antibiotic use in the previous 12 months and MRSA, with an aOR of 2.45 (95% CI 0.95-6.3; P=0.06). In conclusion, there is a suggestion that antibiotics prescribed within 12 months is associated with the carriage of MRSA, but not within 2 months, although the 2-month analysis had fewer data subjects and was therefore underpowered to detect this association. A larger study would be able to clarify these associations further.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 11/2011; 39(2):135-41. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.09.022 · 4.30 Impact Factor
Available from: Javid Dar
- "The major reservoir of staphylococci in hospitals are colonized/infected in-patients and colonized hospital workers, with carriers at risk for developing endogenous infection or transmitting infection to health care workers and patients [2,3,17-19,44], while transient hand carriage of the organism on the hands of health care workers account for the major mechanism for patient to patient transmission . Low prevalence of MRSA colonization in an adult outpatient population indicated that MRSA carriers most likely acquired the organism through contact with healthcare facilities rather than in the community . These data show that care must be taken when attributing MRSA colonization to the community if detected in outpatients or during the first 24 to 48 hours of hospitalization. "
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ABSTRACT: The study was conducted between 2000 and 2003 on 750 human subjects, yielding 850 strains of staphylococci from clinical specimens (575), nasal cultures of hospitalized patients (100) and eye & nasal sources of hospital workers (50 & 125 respectively) in order to determine their epidemiology, acquisition and dissemination of resistance genes.
Organisms from clinical samples were isolated, cultured and identified as per the standard routine procedures. Susceptibility was measured by the agar diffusion method, as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The modified method of Birnboin and Takahashi was used for isolation of plasmids from staphylococci. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of clinical and carrier Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated during our study was performed as described previously.
It was shown that 35.1% of Staphylococcus aureus and 22.5% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were resistant to methicillin. Highest percentage of MRSA (35.5%) was found in pus specimens (n = 151). The multiple drug resistance of all MRSA (n = 180) and Methicillin resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (MRCNS) (n = 76) isolates was detected. In case of both methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive Saphylococcal isolates zero resistance was found to vancomycin where as highest resistance was found to penicillin G followed by ampicillin. It was shown that the major reservoir of methicillin resistant staphylococci in hospitals are colonized/infected inpatients and colonized hospital workers, with carriers at risk for developing endogenous infection or transmitting infection to health care workers and patients. The results were confirmed by molecular typing using PFGE by SmaI-digestion. It was shown that the resistant markers G and T got transferred from clinical S. aureus (JS-105) to carrier S. aureus (JN-49) and the ciprofloxacin (Cf) and erythromycin (E) resistance seemed to be chromosomal mediated. In one of the experiments, plasmid pJMR1O from Staphylococcus aureus coding for ampicillin (A), gentamicin (G) and amikacin (Ak) resistance was transformed into Escherichia coli. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for A and G were lower in E. coli than in S. aureus. However, the MIC for Ak was higher in E. coli transformants than in S. aureus.
There is a progressive increase in MRSA prevalence and multi-drug resistance in staphylococci. Vancomycin is still the drug of choice for MRSA infections. The major reservoir of methicillin resistant staphylococci in hospitals is colonized/infected inpatients and colonized hospital workers. Resistance transfer from staphylococci to E. coli as well as from clinical to carrier staphylococci due to antibiotic stress seemed to be an alarming threat to antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 02/2006; 5(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1476-0711-5-22 · 2.19 Impact Factor
Available from: Heiman Wertheim
- "In comparison with non-ICU patients, critically ill patients admitted to ICUs may receive more benefit from mupirocin, even when moderately efficacious, because the rate of S. aureus infections in ICU patients is much higher. Corbella and colleagues reported a relative risk of acquiring nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia of 59.6 (95% confidence interval 20.4 to 184.3) for nasal carriers after 14 days of ICU stay, compared with non-carriers . Another study found a relative risk for S. aureus bacteremia of 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 9.8) for MRSA carriers compared with MSSA carriers . "
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ABSTRACT: In a retrospective study, Dr Muller and colleagues have assessed the efficacy of mupirocin nasal ointment alongside hygienic measures in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Their findings, which suggest that intranasal mupirocin can prevent ICU-related MRSA infections, need confirmation in a well-designed clinical trial. In general: early identification, isolation and treatment of all MRSA carriers, including health care workers, and disinfection of contaminated environments, are the main 'ingredients' of an effective MRSA 'search and destroy' program.
Critical care (London, England) 07/2005; 9(3):257-8. DOI:10.1186/cc3720 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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