Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage as a marker for subsequent staphylococcal infections in intensive care unit patients
ABSTRACT From January to December 1994, 752 consecutive patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for more than two days were studied prospectively for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. Nasal swabs were obtained at admission and weekly during the ICU stay. At ICU admission 166 patients (22.1%) were Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers, while 586 were free of nasal colonization. Of the 166 nasal carriers, 163 harbored methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). During the ICU stay 24 of the 586 noncolonized patients became nasal carriers (11 MSSA and 13 MRSA), and one nasal carrier initially colonized by MSSA was reconlonized by MRSA. Staphylococcal infections were documented in 51 (6.8%) of the total 752 patients. After 14 days of ICU stay, the probability of developing staphylococcal infections was significantly higher for those patients who were nasal carriers at ICU admission than for those found to be initially negative (relative risk 59.6, 95% CI 20.37-184.32; p < 0.0001). In patients with ICU-acquired nasal colonization, most infections were documented prior to or at the time of the detection of the nasal colonization; thus, in this group of patients nasal carriage showed a lower predictive value for subsequent Staphylococcus aureus infections that that described classically. Paired isolates of nasal colonizing and clinical strains were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and mecA polymorphism analysis in 30 patients; identity was demonstrated in all but two patients. The results suggest that, outside the setting of an outbreak of MRSA, the detection of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers on admission may be particularly useful in identifying those patients who are at high risk for developing staphylococcal infections during their ICU stay.
- SourceAvailable from: Céire Costelloe
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- "A study by Corbella et al.  examined nasal carriage of MRSA in patients admitted to hospital and subsequently admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for more than 2 days. The results showed that outside the setting of an outbreak of MRSA, the probability of developing resistant staphylococcal infection was significantly higher for those patients who were nasal carriers at ICU admission compared with those found to be initially negative . Another study carried out in a sample of US soldiers measured MRSA colonisation status at two different time points (at baseline and at 2 months). "
ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between primary care antibiotics prescribed within 2 months and 12 months and the carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal flora from a large representative sample of community-resident adults. S. aureus isolates were obtained from nasal samples submitted by UK resident adults aged ≥ 16 years registered with 12 general practices in the former Avon and Gloucestershire health authority areas. Individual-level antibiotic exposure data during the 12 months prior to providing the samples were collected from the primary care electronic records. MRSA status was determined by measuring resistance to cefoxitin. In total, 6937 adults were invited to take part, of whom 5917 returned a nasal sample. S. aureus was identified in 946 samples and a total of 761 participants consented to primary care record review and had complete data for the analyses. There was no evidence of an association between any antibiotic in the previous 2 months and MRSA isolation, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.33 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-15; P=0.8]. There was a suggestion of an association between any antibiotic use in the previous 12 months and MRSA, with an aOR of 2.45 (95% CI 0.95-6.3; P=0.06). In conclusion, there is a suggestion that antibiotics prescribed within 12 months is associated with the carriage of MRSA, but not within 2 months, although the 2-month analysis had fewer data subjects and was therefore underpowered to detect this association. A larger study would be able to clarify these associations further.International journal of antimicrobial agents 11/2011; 39(2):135-41. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.09.022