Comparative evaluation of four techniques for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections
ABSTRACT Four diagnostic techniques for Plasmodium falciparum infection were evaluated against serial parasite dilutions and on identical field samples. These were (i) Giemsa-stained thick blood films (GTF), (ii) acridine orange-stained thick (AOTF) and thin (AOTnF) blood films, (iii) the quantitative buffy coat technique (QBC); and (iv) the ParaSight-F dipstick test (PS). PS had a consistently higher sensitivity and speed, was easiest to learn, and required no laboratory facility. The 100% sensitivity cut-off points against known parasite densities (per mm3) were: PS, 30; GTF, 84; QBC, 84; AOTnF, 84; AOTF, 149. In the field study, test sensitivities compared with examination of 800 microscope fields of a Giemsa-stained thin blood film were PS, 96.6%; AOTF, 93.1%; GTF, 91.4%; QBC, 89.7%; AOTnF, 82.8%. In the dilution study, one false positive result was recorded with QBC; in the field study there was one false positive each with PS, AOTnF and AOTF. When a newly trained microscopist examined samples of the parasite dilutions, the 100% sensitivity cut-off points were AOTF, 84; GTF, 140; QBC, 390. Total handling time was shortest with PS regardless of whether samples were processed individually or in batches of 10 or 100. The ParaSight-F test is recommended as the diagnostic tool for the future.
- SourceAvailable from: Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi
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- "Gold standard diagnostic method of malaria is based on microscopic examination. Since the microscopic observation of malaria parasites is difficult in low parasitemia blood smears   and it leads to some problems in the output of epidemiological studies; using molecular techniques such as PCR, which has proved more sensitive and specific than microscopic evaluation, can help to detect infection in patients with low level of parasites and mixed infections [7– 11]. Furthermore, molecular characterization of parasites can be used for any survey on drug resistance, pathogenicity, and molecular epidemiology. "
ABSTRACT: Despite malaria control programs in recent years, malaria transmission has not been eliminated in Iran. Molecular techniques including PCR, which has proved more sensitive and specific than microscopic examination methods, help to detect infection in low levels of parasitemia and mixed infections. Main our objectives were setting up nested PCR for detection of malaria and evaluating PCR based on plasmodia DNA from blood smears in Fars province, the comparison of this method with traditional microscopy and also evaluate the data in comparison with its neighboring province, Hormozgan. A total of 149 malaria positive samples including 116, 19, and 14 samples from Shiraz, Jask, and Lengeh ports were utilized in this study, respectively. Blood slides were prepared for microscopic observation. DNA from thin smears was extracted and nested PCR was analyzed using rPLU5 and rPLU6 for genus specification, rFAL1, rFAL2, and rVIV1, rVIV2 for P. falciparum and P. vivax detection, respectively. The results showed that 126 (84.6%), 16 (10.7%), and 7 (4.7%) out of 149 cases were positive for P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections, respectively, by microscopy. The PCR indicated that 95 (63.7%), 15 (10.1%), and 22 (14.8%) cases were infected with P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed mentioned species, respectively, and 17 (11.4%) cases were uninfected. Our results confirmed the considerable sensitivity of nested PCR for detection of the mixed infections. Simultaneous application of PCR even based on microscopy slides can facilitate access to the highest level of confidence in malaria researches.Journal of Tropical Medicine 02/2014; 2014:935469. DOI:10.1155/2014/935469
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- "Microscopic examination , even conducted by an expert, requires interpretation and its sensitivity falls as malaria parasite densities drop. The specificity and sensitivity of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) using immunochromatography, such as OptiMAL (DiaMed, Cressier, Switzerland) and ICT (Binax Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA), have been evaluated in various epidemiological settings as an alternative to blood smears for malaria diagnosis (Beadle et al. 1994; Dietze et al. 1995; Craig & Sharp 1997; Pieroni et al. 1998; Iqbal et al. 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003; Cho et al. 2001; Congpuong et al. 2002; Lee et al. 2007; Ratsimbasoa et al. 2007). These tests are relatively costly but effective, quick and easy to use under field conditions. "
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax is the only human malaria indigenous to the Republic of Korea (ROK). A rapid and sensitive diagnostic test (RDT) that detects P. vivax is appropriate for evaluating suspected malaria patients with no travel history abroad. The RDTs, SD Malaria Antigen P.v (SD diagnostic, Kyonggi, ROK) specific for P. vivax and the well documented OptiMAL (DiaMed, Cressier, Switzerland) were compared among 282 volunteers for specificity and sensitivity of P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections against Giemsa-stained blood smears read by an experienced microscopist. A total of 137 volunteers were diagnosed with P. vivax, 45 cases (returned travellers from overseas) were diagnosed with P. falciparum and 100 healthy volunteers were diagnosed as negative for malaria. Correspondingly, the SD Malaria Antigen P.v test identified P. vivax infections in 128/137 malaria patients (93.4%) and 0/100 (0%) healthy volunteers. Three patients identified with P. falciparum also were interpreted as P. vivax by the SD Malaria Antigen P.v test; however, these patients were later confirmed as mixed infections of P. vivax and P. falciparum by polymerase chain reaction. OptiMAL interpreted the three mixed infections only as P. falciparum and detected 130/137 (94.9%) patients with P. vivax. The sensitivity of the SD Malaria Antigen P.v test decreased from 100% (>5000 parasite/microl) to 81.3% (1-100 parasites/microl) as parasitaemia levels declined. For the regions where P. vivax is the primary malaria parasite, the SD P. vivax-specific rapid diagnostic test may be useful for screening suspected malaria patients when sufficient material and human resources (e.g. trained microscopists) are unavailable for malaria diagnosis.Tropical Medicine & International Health 11/2008; 13(12):1495-500. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02163.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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- "The first commercial product, ParaSight-F, specific for Plasmodium falciparum and based on the immunological detection of histidine-rich protein II (HRP-2), has been widely evaluated (SHIFF et al., 1993; BEADLE et al., 1994; T~GUEN et al., 1995; CRAIG & SHARP, 1997: MURAHWA et al.. 1999). Following the success of th& first-generation test, others have f&lowed. "
ABSTRACT: The paper reports on a comparative evaluation of 10 rapid malaria tests available in South Africa in 1998: AccuCheck (AC, developmental), Cape Biotech (CB), ICT Malaria Pf (ICT1) and Pf/Pv (ICT2), Kat Medical (KAT), MakroMal (MM), OptiMAL (OP), ParaSight-F (PS), Quorum (Q), Determine-Malaria (DM). In a laboratory study, designed to test absolute detection limits, Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood was diluted with uninfected blood to known parasite concentrations ranging from 500 to 0.1 parasites per microlitre (P/microL). The 50% detection limits were: ICT1, 3.28; ICT2, 4.86; KAT, 6.36; MM, 9.37; CB, 11.42; DM, 12.40; Q, 16.98; PS, 20; AC, 31.15 and OP, 91.16 P/microL. A field study was carried out to test post-treatment specificity. Blood samples from malaria patients were tested with all products (except AC and DM) on the day of treatment and 3 and 7 days thereafter, against a gold standard of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). OP and PS produced fewer false-positive results on day 7 (18 and 19%, respectively) than the other rapid tests (38-56%). However, microscopy, PCR, OP and PS disagreed largely as to which individuals remained positive. The tests were further compared with regard to general specificity, particularly cross-reactivity with rheumatoid factor, speed, simplicity, their ability to detect other species, storage requirements and general presentation.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 05/2002; 96(3):258-65. DOI:10.1016/S0035-9203(02)90092-1 · 1.93 Impact Factor