The epidemiology of severe malaria in an area of low transmission in Thailand
ABSTRACT The predisposing factors, clinical presentation, and outcome of severe malaria in a Karen community living on the western border of Thailand were studied over a period of 2 years. This was an area of low malaria transmission (approximately one infection per person per year), where asymptomatic malaria is unusual. In a population of 4728 persons, who had good access to facilities for malaria diagnosis and treatment, there were 2573 cases of vivax malaria, none of whom died, and there were 5776 cases of falciparum malaria, 303 (5%) of whom had severe malaria and 11 (0.2%) of whom died-a case fatality rate of 1.9 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.3). The risks of developing severe malaria and dying declined steadily with age. The clinical features of severe malaria differed between children and adults. Anaemia was more common in children under 5 years old than in older children and adults, whereas the incidence of cerebral involvement increased with age. Severe malaria was 3 times (95% CI 1.4-6.2) more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, but was 4.2 times (95% CI 2.3-7.9) less common in patients with mixed Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections than in those with P. falciparum alone, suggesting that P. vivax may attenuate the severity of P. falciparum malaria.
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ABSTRACT: We explored the potential of pooled sequencing to swiftly and economically identify selective sweeps due to emerging artemisinin (ART) resistance in a South-East Asian malaria parasite population. ART resistance is defined by slow parasite clearance from the blood of ART-treated patients and mutations in the kelch gene (chr. 13) have been strongly implicated to play a role. We constructed triplicate pools of 70 slow-clearing (resistant) and 70 fast-clearing (sensitive) infections collected from the Thai-Myanmar border and sequenced these to high (~150-fold) read depth. Allele frequency estimates from pools showed almost perfect correlation (Lin's concordance = 0.98) with allele frequencies at 93 SNPs measured directly from individual infections, giving us confidence in the accuracy of this approach. By mapping genome-wide divergence (FST) between pools of drug resistant and drug sensitive parasites we identified two large (>150kb) regions (on chrs. 13 and 14) and 17 smaller candidate genome regions. To identify individual genes within these genome regions we re-sequenced an additional 38 parasite genomes (16 slow and 22 fast-clearing) and performed rare variant association tests. These confirmed kelch as a major molecular marker for ART resistance (p=6.03×10(-6)). This two-tier approach is powerful because pooled sequencing rapidly narrows down genome regions of interest, while targeted rare variant association testing within these regions can pinpoint the genetic basis of resistance. We show that our approach is robust to recurrent mutation and the generation of soft selective sweeps, which are predicted to be common in pathogen populations with large effective population sizes, and may confound more traditional gene mapping approaches. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.Molecular Biology and Evolution 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/molbev/msu397 · 14.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The underlying causes of severe malarial anaemia are multifactorial. In previously reports, Plasmodium vivax was found to be able to directly inhibited erythroid cell proliferation and differentiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the suppression of erythropoiesis by P. vivax are remarkably complex and remain unclear. In this study, a phosphoproteomic approach was performed to dissect the molecular mechanism of phosphoprotein regulation, which is involved in the inhibitory effect of parasites on erythroid cell development. Methods This study describes the first comparative phosphoproteome analysis of growing erythroid cells (gECs), derived from human haematopoietic stem cells, exposed to lysates of infected erythrocytes (IE)/uninfected erythrocytes (UE) for 24, 48 and 72 h. This study utilized IMAC phosphoprotein isolation directly coupled with LC MS/MS analysis. Results Lysed IE significantly inhibited gEC growth at 48 and 72 h and cell division resulting in the accumulation of cells in G0 phase. The relative levels of forty four phosphoproteins were determined from gECs exposed to IE/UE for 24-72 h and compared with the media control using the label-free quantitation technique. Interestingly, the levels of three phosphoproteins: ezrin, alpha actinin-1, and Rho kinase were significantly (p < 0.05) altered. These proteins display interactions and are involved in the regulation of the cellular cytoskeleton. Particularly affected was ezrin (phosphorylated at Thr567), which is normally localized to gEC cell extension peripheral processes. Following exposure to IE, for 48-72 h, the ezrin signal intensity was weak or absent. This result suggests that phospho-ezrin is important for actin cytoskeleton regulation during erythroid cell growth and division. Conclusions These findings suggest that parasite proteins are able to inhibit erythroid cell growth by down-regulation of ezrin phosphorylation, leading to ineffective erythropoiesis ultimately resulting in severe malarial anaemia. A better understanding of the mechanisms of ineffective erythropoiesis may be beneficial in the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent severe malarial anaemia. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0648-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Malaria Journal 03/2015; 14. DOI:10.1186/s12936-015-0648-9 · 3.49 Impact Factor
Acta Tropica 12/2014; 144. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.12.009 · 2.52 Impact Factor