Subclavian stent implantation to alleviate coronary steal through a patent internal mammary artery graft.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Arizona Heart Institute & Foundation, Phoenix 85006, USA.
Journal of Endovascular Surgery 03/1995; 2(1):77-80. DOI: 10.1583/1074-6218(1995)002<0077:SSITAC>2.0.CO;2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interventional techniques are rapidly supplanting conventional surgical therapies for the treatment of brachiocephalic occlusive disease. Although coronary-subclavian steal has been successfully alleviated with subclavian angioplasty, we report the first use of a Palmaz stent in the left subclavian artery (SCA) of a patient with a compromised left internal mammary artery (IMA) graft.
A 65-year old male patient had undergone triple coronary artery bypass grafting in 1992, but 6 months later, severe narrowing occurred in two of the saphenous vein grafts, and arteriography identified a high-grade stenosis in the SCA supplying the left IMA graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following balloon dilation of one saphenous vein graft stenosis, the left SCA was stented primarily with a P3008 Palmaz stent. Normal hemodynamics were restored, and the patient has been free of coronary steal symptoms for over 1 year.
This case illustrates yet another aspect to the usefulness of intravascular stents in restoring and maintaining inflow to bypass grafts.

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of intravascular stents in the treatment of extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease. According to protocol, stent therapy was offered to symptomatic patients with > or = 70% arteriographically defined carotid stenoses or ulcerative lesions and, after September 1994, to asymptomatic patients with > or = 75% stenoses. From April 1993 to September 1995, 110 nonconsecutive patients (79 males; mean age 72 years, range 45 to 85) consented to participate in the study. The majority (79 [72%]) were asymptomatic. Lesions meeting the treatment criteria were in the proximal common (n = 3); mid common (n = 12); distal common (n = 8); internal (ICA) (n = 92); and external (n = 2) carotid arteries. Seven patients had bilateral ICA stenoses, and 17 patients were treated for postsurgical recurrent disease. The mean lesion length and diameter stenosis for all lesions were 12.4 +/- 9.2 mm and 86.5% +/- 10.6%, respectively. The procedures were performed either via direct percutaneous access to the cervical common carotid artery or through a retrograde femoral artery approach. Standard balloon dilation preceded deployment of balloon-expandable stents in most cases. No postprocedural anticoagulation was used (aspirin only). In 110 patients (117 arteries) intended for treatment, 109 (99.0%) (116 arteries [99.1%]) were successfully treated with 129 stents (128 Palmaz, 1 Wallstent). One percutaneous procedure failed (0.9%) for technical reasons (stent could not be deployed) and was converted to carotid endarterectomy. Minor complications included 4 cases of spasm (successfully treated with papaverine); 1 flow-limiting dissection (stented); and 6 access-site problems. There were 7 strokes (2 major, 5 reversible) (6.4%) and 5 minor transient events (4.5%) that resolved within 24 hours. Three patients were converted to endarterectomy (2.7%) prior to discharge; 1 stroke patient expired (0.9%), and another patient died of an unrelated cardiac event in hospital. In the 30-day postprocedural period, 2 ICA stents occluded (patients asymptomatic). Clinical success at 30 days (no technical failure, death, endarterectomy, stroke, or occlusion) was 89.1% (98/110). Over a mean 7.6-month follow-up (range 2 to 31), no new neurological symptoms developed. Another stent occlusion at 2 months and one case of flow-limiting intimal hyperplasia at 7 months were detected on routine duplex scanning in asymptomatic patients. Life-table analysis shows an 89% cumulative primary patency rate. Based on this early experience, carotid stenting appears feasible from a technical standpoint, with good midterm patency. However, the incidence of neurological sequelae is a serious problem. Technical enhancements and a more aggressive antiplatelet regimen may have a positive impact on these events.
    Journal of Endovascular Surgery 03/1996; 3(1):42-62. DOI:10.1583/1074-6218(1996)003<0042:SITCAI>2.0.CO;2
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    ABSTRACT: The internal mammary artery is the preferred conduit for coronary bypass grafting; however, suboptimal flow through the internal mammary artery is sometimes found during the operation, and the conduit is abandoned. Subclavian artery stenosis, a well-recognized cause of reduced internal mammary artery flow, is easily and effectively treated with endovascular techniques. We describe a case of intraoperative primary stent deployment in a high-grade subclavian artery stenosis compromising internal mammary artery flow.
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