A multicenter evaluation of new treatment efficacy instruments for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials: overview and general results. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study.
ABSTRACT Evaluating treatment efficacy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials requires optimal assessment methods to determine the extent and clinical meaningfulness of potential therapeutic effects of pharmacologic agents. Development of improved outcome measures for AD clinical trials is a major objective of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS), an NIA-sponsored, multisite clinical trials consortium. The ADCS Instrument Development Project evaluated the sensitivity, reliability and validity of new or improved measures in each of five assessment domains: (a) cognition (immediate and delayed memory, praxis, attention, and executive function); (b) clinical global change; (c) activities of daily living; (d) behavioral symptoms (agitation and other noncognitive symptoms); and (e) cognition in severely impaired patients. A total of 306 English-speaking subjects were enrolled in the study, including AD patients stratified by disease severity and cognitively normal, age-matched elderly subjects. Half were retested at 1 month and 2 months after baseline, and all received 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Spanish versions of these new measures are currently being evaluated. The development of this multisite study, the common methods and procedures, and a detailed description of the cohort are provided in this overview article. This multisite project demonstrates the feasibility of a consortium approach to instrument development. We were able to develop new instruments and efficiently evaluate their reliability and sensitivity to longitudinal change by capitalizing on the experience and patient resources of the participating ADCS research sites.
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ABSTRACT: Most Alzheimer disease clinical trials that compare the use of health services rely on reports of caregivers. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-reports among older adults with Alzheimer disease and their caregiver proxy respondents. This issue is particularly relevant to Alzheimer disease clinical trials because inaccuracy can lead both to loss of power and increased bias in study outcomes.
Article: GalantamineDrugs 01/2000; 60(5). DOI:10.2165/00003495-200060050-00008 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and associated disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a source of distress and burden for spouses, professional caregivers, and others with responsibilities for the care of individuals with AD. BPSD with behavioral disturbances are also associated with more rapid institutionalization and increased morbidity and mortality for persons with AD. Objectives: In this review and commentary, we discuss the history of the development of BPSD and behavioral disturbance assessments, which are distinct from those evaluating cognitive and functional symptoms of AD. In particular, we review the informant-based Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the related, potentially more sensitive, BEHAVE-AD Frequency-Weighted Severity Scale (BEHAVE-AD-FW), and the direct subject evaluation-based Empirical BEHAVE-AD Rating Scale (E-BEHAVE-AD). The kinds of medications that alleviate behavioral symptoms on these measures as well as the problems and possibilities for further advances with these medications are discussed. Finally, the importance of distinguishing BPSD and behavioral disturbance remediation in AD from the treatment of cognitive decline and other aspects of AD is emphasized in the context of appropriate assessment methodology. The objective of this paper is to provide a framework for further advances in the treatment of BPSD and associated behavioral disturbances in AD and, consequently, a framework for continuing improvements in the lives of individuals with AD and those who share the burden of the disease with the AD person. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 04/2014; 38(1-2):89-146. DOI:10.1159/000357839 · 2.81 Impact Factor