[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a gap between the efficacy of treatments for late-life depression under research conditions and the effectiveness of treatments as they occur in the "real world" of primary care. Considerable evidence supports the efficacy of treatments for late-life depression, but many depressed older adults either are not recognized or do not receive effective treatment for depression in primary care. Older adults face a range of special treatment barriers: knowledge deficits; losses and social isolation; multiple medical problems; and lack of financial resources. More research is needed to understand these barriers and to study the effectiveness of multifaceted, population-based disease management interventions for late-life depression in primary care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article focuses on diagnostic and nosologic challenges intrinsic to geriatric depression, including characteristics interfering with symptom and syndrome ascertainment, the impact of medical and cognitive disorders, the usefulness of screening instruments, and barriers imposed by treatment settings. The article also identifies gaps in existing knowledge and outlines a research agenda. Nosologic characterization of depressives syndromes contributed by specific medical disorders may lead to effective strategies for prevention and treatment of depression. Studies need to examine whether treatment of depression can improve the outcome of medical illnesses requiring active patient involvement in treatment. Considering disability a distinct aspect of health status may add an important dimension to the assessment of depression and result in complementary interventions aimed at depression and disability concurrently. The provisional criteria for depression of Alzheimer's disease, if validated, may facilitate treatment research. Studies need to characterize cognitive dysfunctions associated with later development of dementia or poor treatment response in patients with depression. Care managers working together with primary care physicians can improve the recognition and treatment of depressed elderly patients by obtaining the training in using validated instruments and treatment algorithms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As with adult major depressive disorder (MDD), child and adolescent MDD is characterized as a common, chronic and recurrent disorder. It is also associated with short- and long-term functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Effective treatments, both psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic, are available for the short-term treatment and management of youth with MDD. However, to date, there are no data on the long-term treatment and management of children and adolescents with MDD and how long-term treatment may affect the outcomes of either high-risk or already affected youth. Understanding the long-term consequences of MDD during youth is as important as understanding how to treat a single episode of depression. Available data on the pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic options are discussed. In general, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are not as effective for the treatment of youth with MDD as adults with MDD. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to be effective in children and adolescents with MDD and non-obsessive compulsive anxiety disorders. The serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), venlafaxine XR, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Understanding the long-term clinical consequences of depressive disorders in youth may provide opportunities for better intervention across the clinical course of illness. Early recognition, diagnosis and adequate treatment of 'high-risk' youth with subsyndromal depressive symptoms, treatment of acute episodes of depression to prevent 'kindling', and aggressive prophylaxis have the potential to improve the mental health of youth throughout their lives.
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 02/2003; 12(1):44-53. DOI:10.1002/mpr.141 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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