Molecular features of the CAG repeats of spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA6)
ABSTRACT Spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration caused by the expansion of the polymorphic CAG repeat in the human alpha1A voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit gene (CACNL1A4 gene). We have analyzed 60 SCA6 individuals from 39 independent SCA6 Japanese families and found that the CAG repeat length is inversely correlated with the age of onset (n = 58, r = -0.51, P < 0.0001). SCA6 chromosomes contained 21-30 repeat units, whereas normal chromosomes displayed 6-17 repeats. There was no overlap between the normal and affected CAG repeat number. The anticipation of the disease was observed clinically in all eight parent-child pairs that we examined; the mean age of onset was significantly lower (P = 0.0042) in children than in parents. However, a parent-child analysis showed the increase in the expansion of CAG repeats only in one pair and no diminution in any affected cases. This result suggests that factors other than CAG repeats may produce the clinical anticipation. A homozygotic case could not demonstrate an unequivocal gene dosage effect on the age of onset.
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ABSTRACT: Trinucleotide repeat disorders (TRDs) are a set of genetic disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in certain genes that exceed the normal, stable threshold, which varies from gene to gene. A dynamic mutation in a healthy gene may increase the repeat count and result in a defective gene. At present there are 14 pathogenic trinucleotide repeat disorders that are known to affect humans. The occurrence of these “triplet repeat diseases” within populations ranges from fairly common (Fragile X syndrome and myotonic dystrophy type 1) to rare (Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy). In the present study we report a detailed scenario of TRDs in India mostly in respect to the 9 most common disorders namely; Fragile X syndrome, Myotonic dystrophy type 1, Spinocerebellar ataxia (type 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7), Friedreich's Ataxia and Huntington Disease.European Journal of Medical Genetics 12/2014; 58(3):160-167. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.12.010 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dominantly inherited ataxias, also known as Spino-cerebellar ataxias (SCAs), are rapidly expanding entities. New mutations are being identified at remarkable regularity. Recent awareness of molecular abnormalities in SCAs has addressed some of the long sought questions, but gaps in knowledge still exist. Three major categories of SCAs, according to molecular mechanisms, have evolved over recent few years: Polyglutamate expansion ataxia, non-coding zone repeat ataxia, and ataxia due to conventional mutation. Using the fulcrum of these mechanisms, the article provides an update of SCAs. Shared and specific clinical features, genetic abnormalities, and possible links between molecular abnormalities and cerebellar degeneration have been discussed. Emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms of polyglutamate toxicity.Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 03/2013; 16(3):295-303. DOI:10.4103/0972-2327.116896 · 0.51 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.