Acutely administered melatonin reduces oxidative damage in lung and brain induced by hyperbaric oxygen.
ABSTRACT Hyperbaric oxygen exposure rapidly induces lipid peroxidation and cellular damage in a variety of organs. In this study, we demonstrate that the exposure of rats to 4 atmospheres of 100% oxygen for 90 min is associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products [malonaldehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA)] and with changes in the activities of two antioxidative enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR)], as well as in the glutathione status in the lungs and in the brain. Products of lipid peroxidation increased after hyperbaric hyperoxia, both GPX and GR activities were decreased, and levels of total glutathione (reduced+oxidized) and glutathione disulfide (oxidized glutathione) increased in both lung and brain areas (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, and cerebellum) but not in liver. When animals were injected with melatonin (10 mg/kg) immediately before the 90-min hyperbaric oxygen exposure, all measurements of oxidative damage were prevented and were similar to those in untreated control animals. Melatonin's actions may be related to a variety of mechanisms, some of which remain to be identified, including its ability to directly scavenge free radicals and its induction of antioxidative enzymes via specific melatonin receptors.
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ABSTRACT: The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of melatonin (MEL) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) against dexamethasone (DM)-induced neurotoxicity. Adult female rats (60) were divided into: (1) control group, (2) DM-treated group, (3) MEL-treated group, (4) ALC-treated group, (5) MEL- and DM-treated, and (6) ALC- and DM-treated group. Serum acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) level, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were estimated. Gene expression of the prooxidants (NO synthases NOS-1, NOS-2 and heme oxygenases HO-1, HO-2) and antioxidant enzyme (GST-P1) as well as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation analysis of brain tissue were investigated. Histological examination of the brain tissue was carried out. DM administration caused significant increase in serum AchE activity, MDA and NO levels accompanied with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activity. Pretreatment with MEL or ALC prior DM has been found to reverse all the former parameters. On the genetic level, DM administration significantly increased the expression level of NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2 messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and decreased that GST-P1-mRNA in brain tissue. Also, DM produced DNA fragmentation in brain tissue. Treatment with MEL or ALC prior DM administration tend to normalize the above mentioned parameters. These results were documented by the histological examination of brain tissue. The present study suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of DM-induced neurotoxicity. The inhibition of oxidative stress via stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes by MEL and ALC pretreatment plays a central protective role in modulation of neurotoxicity induced by DM.Journal of physiology and biochemistry 03/2012; 68(1):77-90. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO(2)) exposure affects both oxidative and antioxidant systems. This effect is positively correlated with the exposure time and duration of the treatment. The present study aims enlightening the relation of HBO(2) with oxidative/antioxidant systems when administered in a prolonged and repetitive manner in brain tissues of rats. Sixty rats were divided into 6 study (n = 8 for each) and 1 control (n = 12) group. Rats in the study groups were daily exposed 90-min HBO(2) sessions at 2.8 ATA for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 days. One day after the last session, animals were sacrificed; their whole brain tissue was harvested and dissected into three different regions as the outer grey matter (cortex), the inner white matter and cerebellum. Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in these tissues. Malondialdehyde, carbonylated protein and glutathione peroxidase levels were found to be insignificantly increased at different time-points in the cerebral cortex, inner white matter and cerebellum, respectively. These comparable results provide evidence for the safety of HBO treatments and/or successful adaptive mechanisms at least in the brain tissue of rats, even when administered for longer periods.TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 01/2012; 2012:849183. · 1.73 Impact Factor