17beta-estradiol inhibits apoptosis of endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Endothelial cells provide an antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory barrier for the normal vessel wall. Dysfunction of endothelial cells has been shown to promote atherosclerosis, and normalization of previously dysfunctional endothelial cells can inhibit the genesis of atheroma. In normal arteries, endothelial cells are remarkably quiescent. Acceleration of the turnover rate of endothelial cells can lead to their dysfunction. Apoptosis is a physiological process that contributes to vessel homeostasis, by eliminating damaged cells from the vessel wall. However, increased endothelial cell turnover mediated through accelerated apoptosis may alter the function of the endothelium and therefore, promote atherosclerosis. Apoptotic endothelial cells can be detected on the luminal surface of atherosclerotic coronary vessels, but not in normal vessels. This finding links endothelial cell apoptosis and the process of atherosclerosis, although a causative role for apoptosis in this process remains hypothetical. Estrogen metabolites have been shown to be among the most potent anti-atherogenic agents available to date for post-menopausal women. The mechanism of estrogen's protective effect is currently incompletely characterized. Here we show that 17beta-estradiol, a key estrogen metabolite, inhibits apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells. Our data support the hypothesis that 17beta-estradiol's anti-apoptotic effect may be mediated via improved endothelial cell interaction with the substratum, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125 focal adhesion kinase, and a subsequent reduction in programmed cell death of endothelial cells. Inhibition of apoptosis by estrogens may account for some of the anti-atherogenic properties of these compounds.
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ABSTRACT: Design, synthesis and insight into the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of phytosterol analogues as novel antiapoptotic agents are described. In particular, the non-branched alkyl chain at C24 and the pseudosugar moiety at C3 hydroxyl group turned out crucial for the inhibition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) apoptosis.Archives of Pharmacal Research 03/2012; 35(3):455-60. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound known to induce cellular injury and cytoxicity, including apoptosis in vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cell apoptosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the advanced glycation end-product inhibitor LR-90 could prevent MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pre-treated with LR-90 and then stimulated with MGO. Cell morphology, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by light microscopy, MTT assay, and Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining, respectively. Levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspase activities were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. LR-90 dose-dependently prevented MGO-associated HUVEC cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as loss of MMP, increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and 9. Additionally, LR-90 blocked intracellular ROS formation and MAPK (p44/p42, p38, JNK) activation, though the latter seem to be not directly involved in MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis. LR-90 prevents MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis by inhibiting ROS and associated mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades, suggesting that LR-90 possess cytoprotective ability which could be beneficial in prevention of diabetic related-atherosclerosis.Apoptosis 03/2014; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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