17beta-estradiol inhibits apoptosis of endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Endothelial cells provide an antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory barrier for the normal vessel wall. Dysfunction of endothelial cells has been shown to promote atherosclerosis, and normalization of previously dysfunctional endothelial cells can inhibit the genesis of atheroma. In normal arteries, endothelial cells are remarkably quiescent. Acceleration of the turnover rate of endothelial cells can lead to their dysfunction. Apoptosis is a physiological process that contributes to vessel homeostasis, by eliminating damaged cells from the vessel wall. However, increased endothelial cell turnover mediated through accelerated apoptosis may alter the function of the endothelium and therefore, promote atherosclerosis. Apoptotic endothelial cells can be detected on the luminal surface of atherosclerotic coronary vessels, but not in normal vessels. This finding links endothelial cell apoptosis and the process of atherosclerosis, although a causative role for apoptosis in this process remains hypothetical. Estrogen metabolites have been shown to be among the most potent anti-atherogenic agents available to date for post-menopausal women. The mechanism of estrogen's protective effect is currently incompletely characterized. Here we show that 17beta-estradiol, a key estrogen metabolite, inhibits apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells. Our data support the hypothesis that 17beta-estradiol's anti-apoptotic effect may be mediated via improved endothelial cell interaction with the substratum, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125 focal adhesion kinase, and a subsequent reduction in programmed cell death of endothelial cells. Inhibition of apoptosis by estrogens may account for some of the anti-atherogenic properties of these compounds.
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ABSTRACT: Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound known to induce cellular injury and cytoxicity, including apoptosis in vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cell apoptosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the advanced glycation end-product inhibitor LR-90 could prevent MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pre-treated with LR-90 and then stimulated with MGO. Cell morphology, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by light microscopy, MTT assay, and Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining, respectively. Levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspase activities were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. LR-90 dose-dependently prevented MGO-associated HUVEC cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as loss of MMP, increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and 9. Additionally, LR-90 blocked intracellular ROS formation and MAPK (p44/p42, p38, JNK) activation, though the latter seem to be not directly involved in MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis. LR-90 prevents MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis by inhibiting ROS and associated mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades, suggesting that LR-90 possess cytoprotective ability which could be beneficial in prevention of diabetic related-atherosclerosis.Apoptosis 03/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GPER (aka GPR30) has been identified as an important mechanism by which estrogen mediates its effects. Previous studies from our laboratories and those of others have demonstrated that GPER activation mediates a range of vascular contractile and growth regulatory responses. However, the importance of GPER in mediating the actions of estradiol (E2) in rat aortic endothelial cells is unclear. Therefore, we sought to determine the importance of GPER vs. the "classical" estrogen receptor (ER) in mediating the endothelial growth regulatory effects of E2. To do this we assessed the effect of E2 in regulating phosphoERK content and apoptotic rates in rat aortic endothelial cells and the role of GPER in mediating these effects. E2 mediated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both ERK phosphorylation and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis with a maximal effect at a concentration of 10 nM. Pretreatment with the ER antagonist ICI 182780 abolished E2-mediated inhibition of both ERK phosphorylation and apoptosis. In contrast, pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 had no significant effect on E2-mediated inhibition of ERK phosphorylation or on apoptosis. Further, downregulation of GPER expression with a GPER shRNA adenovirus did not block E2-mediated inhibitory effects on ERK phosphorylation and apoptosis. In fact, these inhibitory effects of E2 were further enhanced by GPER downregulation. Downregulation of ERα expression reversed the E2-mediated inhibitory effects to stimulatory effects. E2's phosphoERK and apoptosis stimulatory effects seen with ERα downregulation are attenuated by pretreatment with G15. In conclusion, in rat aortic endothelial cells, E2-mediated endothelial effects are predominantly driven by ER and not by GPER.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 08/2014; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the process of new microvessel development, is encountered in a select number of physiological processes and is central to the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. There is now convincing evidence that regulated patterns of endothelial cell survival and death, a process known as apoptosis, play a central role in the periodic remodeling of the vasculature, and in the timely evolution and regression of angiogenic responses. In this review we discuss the current evidence suggesting a role for inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis as well as other mediators that modify endothelial cells functions in the survival and death of endothelial cells. We also discuss how dysregulation of apoptosis can lead to aberrant angiogenesis as demonstrated in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity and cancer.Angiogenesis 01/1999; 3(2). · 4.41 Impact Factor