Eosinophil cationic protein and histamine after intestinal challenge in patients with cow's milk intolerance.
ABSTRACT Mast cells and eosinophils are key cells in the development of active symptoms in allergic diseases and other inflammatory conditions, and they mediate their action through the release of very potent granule constituents.
Five patients with milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled milk challenges, but with negative responses to skin prick tests and RASTs with milk, and eight healthy control subjects were investigated. Repeated perfusion studies were performed with a two-balloon, six-channel tube by using milk, casein, and whey as antigens. Luminal eosinophil cationic protein, histamine, and albumin were measured by radioimmunoassay.
Luminal cow's milk induced a pronounced increase in intestinal secretion of histamine and eosinophil cationic protein in patients, but not control subjects, during the first 20 minutes after challenge (histamine from 123 +/- 12 to 543 +/- 175 ng/cm, hr; eosinophil cationic protein from 80 +/- 23 to 686 +/- 262 ng/cm, hr). Albumin, as a marker of plasma leakage, was also significantly increased.
These data indicate that mast cells and eosinophils are effector cells not only in patients with allergic disease but also in patients intolerant to foods and lacking circulating antibodies. The underlying mechanisms may be a reaction mediated by locally appearing antibodies or an immunologic activation resembling that found in intestinal disorders such as celiac disease.
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ABSTRACT: Objective assessment of inflammatory reactions in the gastrointestinal tract could be useful in the diagnosis of food hypersensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of eosinophils and mast cells in the inflammatory response of patients with food hypersensitivity before and after food challenges. Eleven patients (4 with IgE-mediated allergy and 7 without) with food hypersensitivity and positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge were subjected to food challenge in a single-blinded fashion. Four subjects with no known food hypersensitivity were recruited as controls. Placebo was given after a 1-week washout period followed by an active dose. Stool, urinary and serum samples were collected and symptoms were recorded in a diary. Fecal samples were analyzed for eosinophil protein X (F-EPX) and tryptase; urinary samples for EPX (U-EPX) and leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4) and serum samples were analyzed for eotaxin and food-specific IgE antibodies. Patients with IgE-mediated food allergy had increased levels of F-EPX compared to controls and tended to have lower serum levels of eotaxin compared to non-allergic patients and controls. U-LTE4 was significantly higher in allergic patients compared to non-allergic patients after challenge. Moreover, F-EPX correlated to U-LTE4 (p = 0.011). Reported symptoms, abdominal pain, distension, flatulence and nausea were similar in the allergic and non-allergic patients. The results strongly indicate that eosinophils are activated in the gastrointestinal tract of food-allergic patients but not in patients with non-allergic food hypersensitivity. Due to the inconsistent pattern of symptoms after placebo and active food challenge, it was not possible to relate the levels of inflammation markers to the recorded symptoms.International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 02/2006; 140(4):334-41. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Food allergy is a common complaint among patients with a broad spectrum of abdominal and extra-abdominal symptoms that must be distinguished from other more common non-immunological food intolerances. To investigate whether human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are associated with detectable release of inflammatory mediators from activated cells, which may serve as a biological marker of true allergic reactions. In eight patients with food allergy and seven healthy volunteers, a closed-segment perfusion technique was used to investigate the effects of jejunal food challenge on luminal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D(2), eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase activity, and water flux. Intraluminal administration of food antigens induced a rapid increase in intestinal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D(2), and peroxidase activity (p<0.05 v basal period) but not eosinophil cationic protein. The increased release of these mediators was associated with a notable water secretory response. These results suggest that human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are characterised by prompt activation of mast cells and other immune cells, with notable and immediate secretion of water and inflammatory mediators into the intestinal lumen. Analysis of the profile of markers released into the jejunum after food provocation may be useful for the objective diagnosis of food allergy.Gut 10/1999; 45(4):553-8. · 10.73 Impact Factor