Perforin-dependent cytotoxic activity and lymphokine secretion by CD4+ T cells are regulated by CD8+ T cells.
ABSTRACT Factors influencing the development of CD4+ T cell subpopulations with differing lymphokine profiles are well established. However, CD4+ cells can show both perforin- and Fas ligand-dependent cytotoxicity, and little is known about conditions favoring the development of these effector activities. We now report that CD8+ cells regulate the development of perforin-dependent cytotoxicity in CD4+ cells. CD4+ cells activated in either the presence or absence of CD8+ cells developed Fas ligand-dependent cytotoxic activity. However, CD4+ cells developed perforin-dependent cytotoxicity only in the absence of activated CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells also inhibited the development of IL-4-secreting CD4+ cells; however, there was no correlation between the expression of perforin-dependent cytotoxic activity and the ability to secrete IL-4, and perforin-dependent cytotoxic CD4+ cells represented only 10% of isolated clones. This suggests that the two characteristics are expressed in different CD4+ subsets and might be regulated by distinct effects of the CD8+ cells. In keeping with this, regulation of the lymphokine profile of CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells was consistent with mediation by IFN-gamma, but only when delivered at high concentrations requiring close proximity of the cells. In contrast, regulation of perforin-dependent cytotoxic activity of CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells seemed inconsistent with an IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism, suggesting either direct cell contact or close proximity to allow delivery of an unidentified soluble factor. The characteristics of perforin-dependent CD4+ CTL and their regulation by activated CD8+ cells suggest that they represent a previously unrecognized subpopulation that plays a defensive role when a CD8+ cell response is absent.
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ABSTRACT: The possibility that CD4(+) T cells can act as "innate-like" cells to contain very early Mycobacterium tuberculosis dissemination and function as master helpers to sustain multiple effector functions of CD8(+) T cells and CD3(-) lymphocytes during development of adaptive immunity against primary tuberculosis (TB) has not been demonstrated. We showed that pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection of CD4-depleted macaques surprisingly led to very early extrapulmonary M. tuberculosis dissemination, whereas CD4 deficiency clearly resulted in rapid TB progression. CD4 depletion during M. tuberculosis infection revealed the ability of CD8(+) T cells to compensate and rapidly differentiate to Th17-like/Th1-like and cytotoxic-like effectors, but these effector functions were subsequently unsustainable due to CD4 deficiency. Whereas CD3(-) non-T lymphocytes in the presence of CD4(+) T cells developed predominant Th22-like and NK-like (perforin production) responses to M. tuberculosis infection, CD4 depletion abrogated these Th22-/NK-like effector functions and favored IL-17 production by CD3(-) lymphocytes. CD4-depleted macaques exhibited no or few pulmonary T effector cells constitutively producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-22, and perforin at the endpoint of more severe TB, but they presented pulmonary IL-4(+) T effectors. TB granulomas in CD4-depleted macaques contained fewer IL-22(+) and perforin(+) cells despite the presence of IL-17(+) and IL-4(+) cells. These results implicate a previously unknown innate-like ability of CD4(+) T cells to contain extrapulmonary M. tuberculosis dissemination at very early stage. Data also suggest that CD4(+) T cells are required to sustain multiple effector functions of CD8(+) T cells and CD3(-) lymphocytes and to prevent rapid TB progression during M. tuberculosis infection of nonhuman primates.The Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 192(5). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301373 · 5.36 Impact Factor