Ileal amino acid digestibility assay for the growing meat chicken - effect of the imposition of a fasting period and the nature of the test diet
ABSTRACT 1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cold-pelleting, the length of the fasting period before feeding of the test diet and the nature of the test diet on apparent ileal nitrogen (N) digestibility in the broiler chicken. 2. Four-week-old broiler chickens were given a pelleted or non-pelleted maize/soyabean meal (basal) diet. The birds were starved for 24 h, given a single test meal (25 g) by intubation and killed 4 h after the start of feeding by administration of a barbiturate, to allow sampling of ileal digesta (terminal 15 cm). Cold-pelleting did not affect apparent ileal N digestibility. 3. Four-week-old broiler chickens were fasted for 12 or 24 h and then received a test meal (1 h free access) of either a pelleted soyabean meal or a pelleted meat-and-bone meal diet or were continuously fed on one of the two diets. The imposition of a fast did not affect apparent ileal N digestibility. However, a 24 h fasting procedure was preferred, as the between animal variation for apparent ileal N digestibility was lower than for the 12 h fast or for continuous feeding. 4. Four-week-old broiler chickens were given either semi-synthetic starch-based diets containing maize, wheat bran, meat-and-bone meal or fish meal as the sole sources of protein or each of these diets in combination with the basal diet (50:50 on a dry matter basis). With the exception of the maize diet, the apparent ileal N digestibility values calculated by correcting for the digestibility of the basal dietary component were significantly lower than when digestibility was determined directly using a diet in which the respective proteins were the sole protein source. This implies that interactions between the dietary ingredients influence estimates of apparent ileal N digestibility.
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- "The AA output and digestibility were calculated using the following equations: AA output (mg/kg DM intake)=AAdigesta×(markerdiet/markerdigesta); Apparent AA digestibility (%)=AAdiet–(AA output/AAdiet×100) (Kadim and Moughan, 1997 "
ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM) as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM) as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.Italian Journal of Animal Science 06/2014; 13(2):410-414. DOI:10.4081/ijas.2014.3293 · 0.60 Impact Factor
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- "The amino acids output (related to ingestion of 1 g of DM; the units are mg/kg) and digestibility was calculated using the following equation (Kadim and Moughan, 1997 "
ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME), crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility of canola meal (CM) in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM) with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM) as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001) AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg) compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.Italian Journal of Animal Science 01/2014; 13(1). DOI:10.4081/ijas.2014.3032 · 0.60 Impact Factor
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- "of the contents of the ileum (Lewis and Bayley, 1995; Kadim and Moughan, 1997; Marsman et al., 1997; Bedford et al., 1998). "
ABSTRACT: Digestibility of diets based on corn and soybean meal or soybeans treated by roasting or extrusion, with or without an enzyme supplementation, was measured by "true" (Sibbald) methods, by analysis of excreta, and by analysis of ileal digesta. Only analysis of ileal digesta was able to consistently measure differences between soybean and enzyme treatments in the digestibility of CP, starch, fat, and ME. The amino acid (AA) digestibility of the diets was measured by analysis of the ileal contents. Whereas enzyme supplementation improved overall CP digestibility by 2.9%, this improvement was not equal for all AA. Of the AA most important for broilers fed corn-soybean diets, the digestibilities of Lys, Met, and Arg were not improved or not improved significantly by the enzyme supplementation; however, that of Val was improved by 2.3% and that of Thr was improved by 3.0%. A performance trial demonstrated that enzyme supplementation with equal diet formulation improved BW and the feed conversion ratio by 1.9 and 2.2%, respectively. A second performance trial compared standard diet formulations with formulations using enzyme supplementation and energy levels that were reduced by the amount of improvement provided by the inclusion of enzyme in the first performance trial. No difference was seen between treatments, showing that the improvement of nutrient utilization brought about by enzyme supplementation completely compensated for the reduced energy content. Whereas enzyme supplementation should allow a reduction in CP formulation as well, individual AA were not improved equally by supplementation and should also be balanced.Poultry Science 05/1999; 78(4):561-8. DOI:10.1093/ps/78.4.561 · 1.67 Impact Factor