Clear cell neoplasms of the abdominal organs are represented by a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms, of varying malignant potential. Several varieties of clear cell carcinomas, including those with tubulopapillary, hepatoid, colloid, or neuroendocrine features, have been described, as well as several benign epithelial neoplasms. These epithelial tumors have been reported in the gastrointestinal hollow viscera, as well as the liver, pancreas, and biliary tract. A second major consideration is the mesenchymal-derived gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which also may feature clear cells, and comprise a spectrum of biological behavior. Miscellaneous lesions include clear cell variants of melanoma and mesothelioma. This review includes histological details of the various entities, as well as important histochemical, immunohistological, and ultrastructural features. Pertinent differential diagnostic points are stressed, including distinction of the primary clear lesions from relevant metastatic neoplasms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morphologic differentiation of clear cell hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-CC) from clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC-CC) may not be possible without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. We performed a battery of immunohistochemical stains on 10 previously diagnosed HCC-CCs, and 10 RCC-CCs, in order to determine which single or combination of immunostains would be most useful in diagnosis. We concluded that a positive Hepatocyte immunostain (DAKO) is sufficient for a diagnosis of HCC-CC if enough tissue is available. This immunostain distinguishes HCC-CC from other clear cell malignancies with sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 100%, when biopsy material is adequate. Other tests were much less sensitive, although several had specificity of 100%. A negative immunostain does not exclude the diagnosis of HCC-CC (negative predictive value 91%, especially in small biopsy material) and should be followed by additional immunostains such as pCEA for demonstration of tumor canaliculi, ubiquitin for Mallory bodies, and several epithelial cell markers that are typically positive in RCC-CC (epithelial membrane antigen, Leu M-1, pancytokeratin) and negative in HCC-CC.
Modern Pathology 09/2000; 13(8):874-81. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.3880156 · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing gastric cancer is an unusual form of aggressive adenocarcinoma with a complex histological picture, including enteroblastic and hepatoid differentiation.
To investigate the genetic events underlying the phenotypic diversity in AFP producing gastric cancer and the ability of these tumours to produce AFP ectopically.
Multiple foci from 19 AFP producing gastric adenocarcinomas were microdissected and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was performed with a panel of microsatellite markers on nine chromosomal arms.
For informative cases, LOH was most frequently detected on 17p (100%), followed by 13q (88%), 3p (87%), 5q and 9p (80%), 11q (70%), 18q (58%), 16q (53%), and 8p (50%). The average fractional allelic loss was 0.72. LOH was detected either homogeneously throughout the microdissected foci, or only in some parts of the neoplastic foci for each case. Heterogeneous patterns of LOH indicated genetic progression and/or divergence in clonal evolution. Furthermore, in six cases with heterogeneous LOH of 13q, 13q LOH was restricted to immunohistochemically AFP positive neoplastic foci.
AFP-GC arises as an aggressive clone with extensive LOH and high fractional allelic loss. The presence of heterogeneous patterns of LOH suggested that the AFP producing carcinoma foci might evolve through genetic progression and/or genetic divergence. Silencing of the crucial gene on 13q may be involved in the acquisition of the AFP producing phenotype.
Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2004; 56(12):942-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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