The basic helix-loop-helix-zipper transcription factor USF1 regulates expression of the surfactant protein-A gene
ABSTRACT Expression of the rabbit pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene is lung-specific, occurs primarily in type II cells, and is developmentally regulated. We previously identified two E-box-like enhancers, termed the distal binding element (DBE) and proximal binding element (PBE), in the 5'-flanking region of the rabbit SP-A gene. In the present study, the PBE was used to screen a rabbit fetal lung cDNA expression library; a cDNA insert was isolated which is highly similar in sequence to human upstream stimulatory factor 1 (hUSF1). By use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, two isoforms of rabbit USF1 (rUSF1) mRNAs were identified in fetal rabbit lung and other tissues. The levels of rUSF1 mRNAs reach a peak in fetal rabbit lung at 23 days gestation, in concert with the time of initiation of SP-A gene transcription. Binding complexes of nuclear proteins obtained from fetal rabbit lung tissue and isolated type II cells with the DBE and PBE were supershifted by the addition of anti-rUSF1 IgG. Binding activity was enriched in type II cells compared with lung fibroblasts. Overexpression of rUSF1s in A549 adenocarcinoma cells positively regulated SP-A promoter activity of cotransfected reporter gene constructs. It is suggested that rUSF1s, which bind to two E-box elements in the SP-A gene 5'-flanking region, may serve a key role in the regulation of SP-A gene expression in pulmonary type II cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Ales Cvekl[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the myocilin (MYOC)/TIGR gene are responsible for autosomal-dominant juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In patients with non-autosomal-dominant POAG, such mutations are rare, but the expression of MYOC/TIGR in the trabecular meshwork (TM) of the eye is considerably higher than in normals. We performed transfection, DNAse I footprinting, mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) to identify elements responsible for the basal transcription of MYOC/TIGR in TM cells and astrocytes. DNAse I footprinting experiments of the human MYOC/TIGR promoter showed a major protected area between nt -106 to -77, which was not conserved in the homologous region of the mouse myoc/tigr promoter. In addition, the TATA-box was protected, as well as at least three downstream sites, including an AP-1-like sequence. Deletion of the -106 to -77 region caused a substantial loss of functional promotor activity in all cell types. Site-directed mutagenesis and EMSA experiments revealed the presence of two regulatory elements in the -106 to -77 region. Each of these cis-elements is essential for minimal promoter activity. The 5'-half of the region contains a sequence with similarities to NF-kappaB-related sites, however, binding of NF-kappaB could not be confirmed by EMSA. The 3'-half contains a canonical E-box sequence. EMSA experiments showed that the upstream regulatory factor (USF) was binding to the E-box sequence and that the binding can be supershifted by specific antibodies. Several DNA-protein binding elements contribute to a transcription of MYOC/TIGR, and USF is critically required for its basal transcription in trabecular meshwork cells and astrocytes.Genes to Cells 09/2000; 5(8):661-76. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2000.00355.x · 2.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The upstream stimulatory factors (USFs) are regulators of important cellular processes. Both USF1 and USF2 are supposed to have major roles in metabolism, tissue protection and tumor development. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms that control the function of USFs, in particular in tissue protection and cancer, is limited. Phosphorylation is a versatile tool to regulate protein functions. Thereby, phosphorylation can positively or negatively affect different aspects of transcription factor function including protein stability, protein-protein interaction, cellular localization, or DNA binding. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the regulation of USFs by direct phosphorylation and the consequences for USF functions in tissue protection and cancer.Frontiers in Pharmacology 02/2015; 6:3. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00003
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcriptional activation of the prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) gene in granulosa cells is required for ovulation. To directly study the ability of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) and USF2 to trans-activate the bovine PGHS-2 promoter in granulosa cells, USF1 or USF2 expression vectors were cotransfected with the PGHS-2/luciferase (LUC) chimeric construct, -149/-2PGHS-2.LUC. Results revealed that overexpression of USF1 or USF2 caused a marked and significant increase in basal and forskolin-inducible promoter activities (p<0.05), and these effects were dependent on the presence of a consensus E-box cis-element within the promoter fragment. Co-transfections with different N- and C-terminal truncated USF mutants led to significant reductions in promoter activation, as compared with full-length constructs (p<0.05), thus allowing identification of putative bovine USF functional domains. Overexpression of a USF2 truncated mutant lacking the first 220 residues (U2Delta1-220) acted as a dominant negative mutant and blocked endogenous and USF-stimulated PGHS-2 promoter activation. Interestingly, transfections with U2Delta1-220 blocked the forskolin-dependent induction of PGHS-2 mRNA in granulosa cells, whereas transfections with full-length USF2 increased PGHS-2 transcript levels. Immunoblot analyses confirmed overexpression of full-length and truncated USF proteins, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and supershift EMSAs established that the observed effects were dependent on specific interactions between USF proteins and the consensus E-box cis-element. Stimulation of cells with forskolin increased, whereas treatment of extracts with phosphatase decreased USF binding activities to the E-box. Thus, this study presents for the first time direct evidence for a role of USF proteins in the regulation of the PGHS-2 promoter in preovulatory granulosa cells.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2004; 279(8):6327-36. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M311222200 · 4.60 Impact Factor