To present data on the spectrum of abnormal Papanicolaou (PAP) smears in adolescents and to determine factors that influence compliance with recommendations to return for repeat PAP smears or for colposcopic examination.
Retrospective chart review with follow-up telephone calls to patients who did not follow recommendations for colposcopy.
Adolescents receiving health care in a hospital-based adolescent clinic.
Patients with abnormal PAP smears between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995.
Compliance with follow-up for abnormal PAP smears including referral to the colposcopy clinic, and the results of repeat PAP smears and colposcopy.
Of 888 adolescents undergoing PAP smear evaluation 119 (13.4%) had an abnormal PAP smear during the study year (index PAP). The results of the index PAP were 97 (81.5%) atypia and 22 (18.5%) squamous intraepithelial lesion low grade (SIL LG). The index PAP was the first abnormal PAP smear for 92 of the patients (77%); 27 had one or more previous abnormal PAP smears (18 atypia, 7 SIL LG, 2 SIL high grade [HG]), and 13 had been referred for colposcopy in the past. For 76 of 92 patients with atypia on index PAP (84%), the index PAP was the first abnormal PAP smear. Of these 76 patients, 51 had a second PAP smear: 27 (53%) were normal, 13 (25%) atypia, and 11 (22%) SIL LG. Sixty patients were referred to the colposcopy clinic, but only 37 actually kept the colposcopy appointment despite outreach. The only significant factor for obtaining colposcopy was a visit to the Adolescent Clinic after notification of the abnormal PAP smear result and before the colposcopy appointment; 79% of those who had a visit obtained colposcopy compared with 45% of those who did not have such a visit (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences by race, insurance status, age, PAP smear result, previous referral for colposcopy, or number of reminders with compliance with recommendations for repeat PAP smears or colposcopy.
Although a sizable proportion of adolescents with abnormal PAP smears have significant pathology on repeat PAP smears, adolescents with abnormal PAP smears have a high failure rate in keeping appointments for follow-up PAP smears and colposcopy. Interventions that target all adolescents with abnormal PAP smears need to be designed and tested to aid follow-up.
"Patients want to be notified of all test results, regardless of whether the results are abnormal [4-8] A few studies have explored patient's preferences for being notified of specific test results, reporting that patients prefer to be notified by telephone for breast biopsy results and normal mammograms, and wish to receive timely, detailed, written information for normal pap smear results. We found no studies from primary care concerning notification procedures and patient preferences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many medical errors occur during the laboratory testing process, including lost test results. Patient inquiry concerning results often represents the final safety net for locating lost results. This qualitative study sought to identify, from a patient perspective, specific preferences and factors that influence the process of communicating normal (negative) laboratory test results to patients.
We conducted 30-minute guided interviews with 20 adult patients. Patients were recruited from two practice-based research networks in Colorado that were participating in a medical errors study. A semi-structured interview elicited the participant's experience with and preference for laboratory test result notification. Quantitative descriptive statistics were generated for demographic and preference data. Qualitative results were analyzed by a team of experienced qualitative researchers using multiple styles of qualitative analyses, including a template approach and an editing approach.
Ninety percent of participants wanted to be notified of all tests results. Important issues related to notification included privacy, responsive and interactive feedback, convenience, timeliness, and provision of details. Telephone notification was preferred, followed by regular mail. Electronic notification was perceived as uncomfortable because it was not secure. While 65% preferred being notified by a provider, participants acknowledge that this may be impractical; thus, they wanted to be notified by someone knowledgeable enough to answer questions. Participants do not normally discuss their preferences for test result notification with their providers.
Privacy, responsive and interactive feedback, convenience, and timeliness with detailed information may be critical for patient satisfaction and for improving patient safety, and are features that may be incorporated into emerging communication channels.
BMC Family Practice 04/2005; 6(1):11. DOI:10.1186/1471-2296-6-11 · 1.67 Impact Factor
"Recent national estimates for compliance with Pap smears among women from the general population have ranged from 43 to 47%  . Factors correlated with these low compliance rates include low socioeconomic status  , low education levels , lack of or inadequacy of insurance , prior history of low-grade cervical lesion  , high-risk behaviors for cervical cancer , adolescence , and old age   . Therefore, within the population of women in the United States, female OB/GYN residents who have firsthand awareness of the devastating effects of cervical cancer as well as the relative ease of prevention of this disease, it might be expected that their compliance rate for routine Pap smears would greatly exceed that of the general population. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We wish to determine how well female obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) residents in the United States follow recommendations for routine Pap smears in managing their own health care and to identify the reasons for noncompliance.
A survey was mailed to 1693 female OB/GYN residents in the U.S. Factors associated with noncompliance were determined by chi-square. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent prognostic factors and calculate the odds ratio (OR).
Six hundred eleven (36%) surveys were returned with compliance information. Noncompliance was reported by 33%. Lack of time or inconvenience was cited as the most common reason (93%) for noncompliance, followed by consideration of themselves as low risk for cervical disease (41%) and fear of or embarrassment in seeing a doctor (14%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for noncompliance during residency included noncompliance prior to residency (OR 4.6, P<0.0001) and Asian ethnicity (OR 2.1, P = 0.02), whereas East Indian ethnicity (OR 3.0, P = 0.06) and having no children (OR 1.6, P = 0.07) were near significant.
A substantial proportion of female OB/GYN residents do not follow standard recommendations for routine Pap smears. Although the principal reason for noncompliance given was lack of available time and/or inconvenience during residency, this behavior predated residency and was associated with specific ethnic groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To gain a better understanding of factors that affect follow-up and the strategies that have been found to improve follow-up after an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test.
A computer-based search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE with the keywords adherence, nonadherence, compliance, follow-up, and abnormal Pap smears.
Research studies published between 1985 and 1999 in the English language were included. If relevant studies were cited in the articles reviewed, these studies also were reviewed. A total of 25 studies were reviewed.
A critical review of these studies was conducted, with special attention to implications for clinical practice as well as future research. The studies fell into two groups: factors associated with nonadherence and strategies developed to improve adherence.
A number of factors were identified that affect adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Some of these factors involve characteristics of the woman, such as demographics, social support, lack of understanding, and fear. Factors that pertain to the health care system, such as inconvenient clinic hours, male providers, and insensitive staff, also were identified. A number of strategies have been successful in improving follow-up, including telephone counseling, educational programs, and economic incentives.
Nurses play a crucial role in facilitating adherence to recommendations for follow-up. They can identify women at risk for poor follow-up, increase awareness of the factors that affect follow-up, and implement strategies shown to be successful in improving adherence. Future research should take into account the multifactoral nature of adherence as well as the patient's perspective. In addition, studies should be designed with special attention to generalizability and should include women from populations most at risk for cervical cancer.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.