The efficiency of the live vaccine Zoosal T with a double marker mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium was tested on conditioned pigeons. For challenge infection we used a pigeon specific variation copenhagen strain in a defined state of virulence. The reduction of mortality and the persistence of Salmonella in organs were evaluated. An oral booster enhances the protection due to vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes oral boost immunisations of primed animals as an alternative oral vaccination strategy. Mice were primed orally (PO), intranasally (IN), subcutaneously (SC), or intraperitoneally (IP) with ovalbumin (OVA) with or without adjuvant. Boost immunisations were given orally with or without cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant. Prime immunisations induced variable IgA and IgG(1) titres in serum depending on the route. A subsequent oral boost increased these titres. Use of an adjuvant in the priming significantly increased serum IgA and, to a lesser extend, IgG(1). Oral boost immunisation induced significantly higher serum IgA titres in animals primed via the SC, IP and the IN route compared to the PO route. This was independent of the use of CT. Three oral boosts with OVA plus 5 microg CT given in 5 days to primed mice revealed higher IgA titres compared to single oral boosts and anti-OVA IgA titres in faeces were also detected. Finally, we put together our findings and propose a systemic priming/oral boost strategy in which mice were primed via the SC route with 100 microg OVA plus 50 microg Butyl16-p(AA), and subsequently orally boosted with three doses of 300 microg OVA plus 5 microg CT each. We concluded that oral immunisation is more effective in IN, SC, or IP primed mice than in PO primed mice, and that the IgA antibody response in serum and faeces can be improved by increasing the immunisation frequency and the use of appropriate adjuvants in primary and boost immunisation. The here-formulated strategy improves the probability of success of oral vaccination. The results are discussed in the light of the development of edible vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In horses, natural infection confers long lasting protective immunity characterised by mucosal IgA and humoral IgGa and IgGb responses. In order to investigate the potential of locally administered vaccine to induce a protective IgA response, responses generated by vaccination with an immunostimulating complex (ISCOM)-based vaccine for equine influenza (EQUIP F) containing A/eq/Newmarket/77 (H7N7), A/eq/Borlänge/91 (H3N8) and A/eq/Kentucky/98 (H3N8) using a systemic prime/mucosal boost strategy were studied. Seven ponies in the vaccine group received EQUIP F vaccine intranasally 6 weeks after an initial intramuscular immunisation. Following intranasal boosting a transient increase in virus-specific IgA was detected in nasal wash secretions. Aerosol challenge with the A/eq/Newmarket/1/93 reference strain 4 weeks after the intranasal booster resulted in clinical signs of infection and viral shedding in seven of seven influenza-naive control animals whereas the seven vaccinated ponies had statistically significantly reduced clinical signs and duration of virus excretion. Furthermore, following this challenge, significantly enhanced levels of virus-specific IgA were detected in the nasal washes from vaccinated ponies compared with the unvaccinated control animals. These data indicate that the intranasal administration of EQUIP F vaccine primes the mucosal system for an enhanced IgA response following exposure to live influenza virus.
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