Article

Chemical stability of polyether urethanes versus polycarbonate urethanes.

Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, P.zza L. da Vinci, Milano, Italia.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 10/1997; 36(4):550-9. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(19970915)36:43.0.CO;2-E
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The relative chemical stability of two commercially available polyurethanes-Pellethane, currently used in biomedical devices, and Corethane, considered as a potential biomaterial-was investigated following aging protocols in hydrolytic and oxidative conditions (HOC, water, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric acid) and in physiological media (PHM, phosphate buffer, lipid dispersion, and bile from human donors). The chemical modifications induced on these polymers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With the exception of nitric acid, all of the aging media promoted a mild hydrolytic reaction leading to a slight molecular weight loss in both polymers. When aged in water and hydrogen peroxide, Pellethane experienced structural modifications through microdomain phase separation along with an increase of the order within the soft-hard segment domains. The incubation of Pellethane in nitric acid also resulted in an important decrease of the melting temperature of its hard segments with chain scission mechanisms. Moreover, incubation in PHM led to an increase of the order within shorter hard-segment domains. FTIR data revealed the presence of aliphatic amide molecules used as additives on the Pellethane's surface. The incubation of Corethane under the same conditions promoted an almost uniform molecular reorganization through a phase separation between the hard and soft segments as well as an increase of the short-range order within the hard-segment domains. Incubation of this polymer in nitric acid also resulted in a chain scission process that was less pronounced than that measured for the Pellethane samples. Finally, lipid adsorption occurred on the Corethane sample incubated in bile for 120 days. Overall data indicate that polycarbonate urethane presents a greater chemical stability than does polyetherurethane.

5 Bookmarks
 · 
310 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An inherently radiopaque poly(carbonate urethane) containing fluorine and iodine atoms in the polymer chain was synthesized and characterized. Radiopaque polyurethane was synthesized from 1,6-diisocyanatohexane (HDI), poly (hexamethylene carbonate)diol (PHCD) and a newly synthesized chain extender having fluorine and iodine in the molecule, namely, 4,4’-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane-2,2- diyl)bis(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBAF). IBAF monomer imparted radiopacity and improved the hemocompatibility of the resultant polymer. For comparative evaluation, polyurethanes (PU) were synthesized by reacting monomers HDI and PHCD without any chain extender and also by reacting HDI and PHCD along with noniodinated, but fluorine containing, version of the above chain extender, namely, 4,40-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphenol (BAF). Chain extended PUs showed improved mechanical and thermal properties, and hemocompatibility compared to the nonchain extended PU. Radiopacity measurements by fluoroscopy showed that IBAF incorporated PU of 200 mm thickness had radiopacity equivalent to that of 25% barium sulfate filled noniodinated PU of same thickness and to that of 0.6-mm thick aluminum wedge. In vivo imaging using a rabbit cadaver model showed clearly distinguishable image of IBAF incorporated PU sample. All the PU materials were noncytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Preliminary results obtained from blood-material interaction studies showed that incorporation of fluorinated chain extenders in the PUs resulted in significant reduction in the adhesion of white blood cells onto the PU material surface and also resulted in prolonged partial thromboplastin time. Results suggest that incorporation of fluorine and iodine containing chain extenders would lead to the development PU with improved hemocompatibility and radiopacity.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 10/2014; DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.35359 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The spine contains intervertebral discs and the Interspinous and longitudinal ligaments. These structures are elastomeric or viscoelastic in their mechanical properties and serve to allow and control the movement of the bony elements of the spine. The use of metallic or hard polymeric devices to replace the intervertebral discs and the creation of fusion masses to replace discs and/or vertebral bodies changes the load transfer characteristics of the spine and the range of motion of segments of the spine.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2014.08.012 · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The surgical repair or treatment of degenerative joint disease has traditionally involved the substitution of synthetic materials for one or both surfaces of the joint. Engineering thermoplastics, metals, and ceramics have either been widely accepted or experimentally evaluated for use as bearing surfaces in these prostheses. When engineering thermoplastics are used, the opposing surface is a metal or a ceramic, but metal-on-metal, metal-on-ceramic, and ceramic-on-ceramic have also been used or tested. Researchers have sought the opportunity to utilize materials with compressive mechanical properties more closely matching those of the natural articular cartilage. This review discusses the theory, testing, and application of elastomers for one bearing component of articular joint prostheses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014; 102(6). DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33130 · 2.31 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
657 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014