Use of alfentanil and propofol for outpatient monitored anesthesia care: Determining the optimal dosing regimen

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235-9068, USA.
Anesthesia & Analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.47). 09/1997; 85(3):566-72. DOI: 10.1213/00000539-199709000-00015
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Propofol and alfentanil are both rapid and short-acting drugs that can be used for sedation and analgesia during monitored anesthesia care (MAC). This study was designed to determine the optimal infusion rates of propofol and alfentanil when administered during local anesthesia. In this randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of different propofol infusion rates on the alfentanil requirement, level of sedation, intraoperative recall, respiratory and cardiovascular variables, and recovery. Seventy-two consenting ASA physical status I or II female outpatients undergoing breast biopsy procedures with local anesthesia were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. All patients received midazolam, 2 mg intravenously (I.V.) for premedication. Propofol was infused at 0, 25, 50, or 75 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) during the operation. Sedation was evaluated using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale at 5-min intervals by a blinded observer. Two minutes before the infiltration of the local anesthetic solution, a bolus of alfentanil, 2.5 microg/kg I.V., was administered, followed by a maintenance infusion of 0.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). The alfentanil infusion rate was subsequently varied to maintain patient comfort and stable cardiovascular and respiratory function. Pictures were shown at the start of the propofol infusion, upon initiating the alfentanil infusion, and at 45 min after the skin incision to evaluate recall of intraoperative events. Propofol produced dose-dependent increases in the level of sedation (with median OAA/S scores of 2-4, P < 0.05). Higher infusion rates of propofol (50-75 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) produced significant amnesia, opioid-sparing effects (alfentanil 0.3 +/- 0.2 vs 0.6 +/- 0.2 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and less postoperative nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05). However, episodes of transient hemoglobin oxygen desaturation were more common in the deeply sedated patients. Thus, in healthy outpatients premedicated with midazolam, 2 mg I.V., a propofol infusion of 25-50 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) in combination with an alfentanil infusion of 0.2-0.4 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) is recommended for sedation and analgesia during MAC in the ambulatory setting. IMPLICATIONS: Sedation is often given during local anesthesia. This study demonstrated that administration of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol, in combination with an opioid infusion (i.e., alfentanil) to provide sedation analgesia and amnesia with a low incidence of side effects, such as nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression in outpatients premedicated with midazolam.

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Available from: Paul F White, Apr 17, 2015
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    • "Avramov and White [14] has reported administration of an intravenous anesthetic, propofol, in combination with an opioid infusion (i.e., alfentanil) to provide the sedation analgesia and amnesia with a low incidence of side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, in addition to respiratory depression in outpatients, who were premedicated with midazolam. "
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    ABSTRACT: The patient-controlled sedation (PCS) allows for rapid individualized titration of sedative drugs. Propofol has been the most widely used IV adjuvant, during the monitored anesthesia care (MAC). This study was designed to compare the sedation quality, side effect and recovery of the propofol alone, and propofol-remifentanil combination, using PCS for breast biopsy. Seventy five outpatients, undergoing breast biopsy procedures with local anesthesia, were randomly assigned to receive propofol alone (group P), propofol-25 ug/ml of remifentanil (group PR25), and propofol-50 ug/ml of remifentanil (group PR50), using PCS. Pain visual analogue scores (VAS) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST), Vital signs, bi-spectral index (BIS) and observer assessment of alertness and sedation (OAA/S) score were recorded. Apply/Demand ratio in the group PR50 had a significant increase over the other groups (P < 0.05). The incidence of excessive sedation and dizziness were significantly more frequent in the group PR50 (P < 0.05). BIS and OAA/S score significantly decreased in the group PR25, PR50 at 15 min after the operation, the end of surgery (P < 0.05). At 5 min after the start of PCS, patients in the group PR25 and PR50 gave significantly less correct responses on the DSST than that of the group P (P < 0.05). Compared with the propofol alone, intermittent bolus injection of propofol-remifentanil mixture could be used, appropriately, for the sedation and analgesia during MAC. The group PR25 in a low dose of remifentanil has more advantages in terms of sedation and satisfaction because of the group PR50's side effects.
    Korean journal of anesthesiology 11/2012; 63(5):431-5. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2012.63.5.431
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    • "It has been suggested that 1-2 mg/kg/h of propofol infusion may achieve a satisfactory level for conscious sedation [25], and propofol infusion of 25-50 µg/kg/min in combination with alfentanil infusion of 0.2-0.4 µg/kg/min was recommended for sedation and analgesia during MAC in healthy outpatients undergoing breast biopsy [26]. The drug infusion rates of previous studies are comparable with those in this study, and the drug infusion rate was titrated to the Ramsay sedation score of 3. Therefore, it seems not to influence the outcomes of this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dexmedetomidine has a sedative analgesic property without respiratory depression. This study evaluated the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an appropriate sedative drug for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) in outpatients undergoing cataract surgery on both eyes compared with combination of propofol and alfentanil. Thirty-one eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups on the first operation day. Dexmedetomidine was administered in group D at 0.6 µg/kg/h, and propofol and alfentanil was infused concomitantly in group P at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h and 20 µg/kg/h, respectively. Sedation was titrated at Ramsay sedation score 3. Iowa satisfaction with anesthesia scale (ISAS) of the patients was evaluated postoperatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were recorded throughout the surgery. For the second operation, the group assignments were exchanged. Postoperative ISAS was 50.3 (6.2) in group D and 42.7 (8.7) in group P, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). SBP was significantly lower in group D compared with group P from the beginning of the operation. HR, RR, and SpO(2) were comparable between the two groups. There were 8 cases (25.8%) of hypertension in group P, and 1 case (3.2%) in group D (P < 0.05). In contrast, 1 case (3.2%) of hypotension and 1 case (3.2%) of bradycardia occurred in group D. Compared with the combined use of propofol and alfentanil, dexmedetomidine could be used appropriately for MAC in cataract surgery with better satisfaction from the patients and a more stable cardiovascular state.
    Korean journal of anesthesiology 12/2011; 61(6):453-9. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.6.453
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    • "The analgesic component of anesthesia is usually provided by specific drugs, mainly opioids, low-dose ketamine or local anesthetic agents. Opioids interact synergistically with hypnotics for sedation and hypnosis [19] but cause significant respiratory depression and increase the incidence of PONV [20]. Local and regional anesthetics, when available, are effective to suppress pain related to surgical procedures. "
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    ABSTRACT: The growing importance of ambulatory surgery during the past decade has led to the development of efficient anesthetic techniques in terms of quality and safety of anesthesia and recovery. In these challenging objectives, intravenous techniques have played an important role, as they provide safe, efficient, and cost-effective anesthesia in the ambulatory setting. Among the numerous intravenous drugs, propofol, with its fast and smooth onset of action, short duration of action, and low incidence of postoperative side effects appears to be the anesthetic of choice in this situation. The recent development of new techniques of administration (such as TCI, monitored anesthesia care, or patient-controlled sedation) and monitoring (such as the BIS and the availability of "hit and run" drugs such as remifentanil) will optimize intraoperative conditions and recovery, thus allowing faster home readiness in the ambulatory setting.
    Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 07/2003; 21(2):273-88. DOI:10.1016/S0889-8537(02)00081-0
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