Characterization of the gene encoding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Achromobacter xylosoxidans KF701.
ABSTRACT Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) catalyzes a meta cleavage of the aromatic ring in catechol to form 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. A C23O gene was cloned from chromosomal DNA of A. xylosoxidans KF701, a soil bacterium degrading biphenyl, and expressed in E. coli HB101. In substrate specificity to catechol and its analogs, the C23O exhibited the highest aromatic ring-fission activity to catechol, and its relative activity to other dihydroxylated aromatics was 4-chlorocatechol > 4-methylcatechol > 3-methylcatechol > 2, 3-dihydroxybiphenyl. Aromatic ring-fission activity of the C23O to catechol was about 40-fold higher than that to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the C23O gene from A. xylosoxidans KF701 revealed an open reading frame consisting of 924 base pairs, and identified a putative ribosome-binding sequence (AGGTGA) at about 10 nucleotides upstream from the initiation codon. The open reading frame can encode a polypeptide chain with molecular weight of 34 kDa containing 307 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the C23O exhibited the highest homology with that of C23O from Pseudomonas sp. IC with 96% identity, and the least homology with that of C23O from P. putida F1 with 22% identity among reported C23O sequences. Furthermore, comparison of the C23O sequence with other extradiol dioxygenases has led to identification of evolutionally conserved amino acid residues whose possible catalytic and structural roles are proposed.
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ABSTRACT: Biodegradation can achieve complete and cost-effective elimination of aromatic pollutants through harnessing diverse microbial metabolic processes. Aromatics biodegradation plays an important role in environmental cleanup and has been extensively studied since the inception of biodegradation. These studies, however, are diverse and scattered; there is an imperative need to consolidate, summarize, and review the current status of aromatics biodegradation. The first part of this review briefly discusses the catabolic mechanisms and describes the current status of aromatics biodegradation. Emphasis is placed on monocyclic, polycyclic, and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons because they are the most prevalent aromatic contaminants in the environment. Among monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; phenylacetic acid; and structurally related aromatic compounds are highlighted. In addition, biofilms and their applications in biodegradation of aromatic compounds are briefly discussed. In recent years, various biomolecular approaches have been applied to design and understand microorganisms for enhanced biodegradation. In the second part of this review, biomolecular approaches, their applications in aromatics biodegradation, and associated biosafety issues are discussed. Particular attention is given to the applications of metabolic engineering, protein engineering, and "omics" technologies in aromatics biodegradation.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2009; 85(2):207-28. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacterium strain PJ3, isolated from wastewater and identified as Arthrobacter sp. bacterium based on its 16S rDNA gene, could use carbazole as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. The genomic library of strain PJ3 was constructed and a positive clone JM109 (pUCW402) was screened out for the expression of dioxygenase by the ability to form yellow ring-fission product. A 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (23DHBD) gene of 933 bp was found in the 3360 bp exogenous fragment of pUCW402 by GenSCAN software and BLAST analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 23DHBD from strain PJ3 formed a deep branch separate from a cluster containing most known 23DHBD in GenBank. Southern hybridization confirmed for the first time that the 23DHBD gene was from the genomic DNA of Arthrobacter sp. PJ3. In order to test the gene function, recombinant bacterium BL21 (pETW-8) was constructed to express 23DHBD. The expression level in BL21 (pETW-8) was highest compared with the recombinant bacteria JM109 (pUCW402) and strain PJ3. We observed that 23DHBD was not absolute specific. The enzyme activity was higher with 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as a substrate than with catechol. The substrate specificity assay suggested that 23DHBD was essential for cleavage of bi-cyclic aromatic compounds during the course of aromatic compound biodegradation in Arthrobacter sp. strain PJ3.Chinese Science Bulletin 01/2007; 52(9):1205-1211. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The endophytic bacterial strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans F3B, which was able to utilize aromatic compounds as a sole carbon source, was inoculated into vetiver grass in this study. A real-time PCR detection method has been developed for confirming the stability of F3B in plants and DGGE profiles were conducted for examining the diversity of endophytes during the remediation process. These results showed that the endophytic bacteria strain F3B could maintain a stable population in plant roots without largely interfering with the diversity of native endophytes. Furthermore, the strain F3B could protect plants against toluene stress and maintain chlorophyll content of leaves, and a 30% reduction of evapotranspiration through vetiver leaves was observed. Our results demonstrate the potential to improve phytoremediation of aromatic pollutants by inoculating functional endophytic bacterial strains.Bioresource Technology 03/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor