Effects of triamcinolone acetonide on an in vivo equine osteochondral fragment exercise model.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of intra-articularly administered triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in exercised equine athletes with carpal osteochondral fragmentation. Eighteen horses were randomly assigned to each of 3 groups. An osteochondral chip fragment was created in one randomly chosen intercarpal joint of each horse. Both intercarpal joints in the placebo control group (CNT) horses were injected with intra-articular administration (IA) of polyionic fluid. Both joints in the TA control group (TA CNT) horses were treated with 12 mg of TA in the intercarpal joint without an osteochondral fragment, and the opposite intercarpal joint was injected with a similar volume of polyionic fluid. The TA treated group (TA TX) horses were treated with 12 mg of TA in the joint that contained the osteochondral fragment and the opposite intercarpal joint was injected with a similar volume of polyionic fluid. All horses were treated IA on days 13 and 27 after surgery and exercised on a high speed treadmill for 6 weeks starting on Day 14. Horses in the TA TX group were significantly less lame than horses in the CNT and TA CNT groups. Horses in either TA CNT or TA TX groups had lower total protein, and higher hyaluronan, and glycosaminoglycan concentrations in synovial fluid than did those in the CNT group. Synovial membrane collected from subjects in TA CNT and TA TX groups had significantly less inflammatory cell infiltration, subintimal hyperplasia and subintimal fibrosis compared to the CNT group. Articular cartilage histomorphological parameters were significantly better from the TA CNT and TA TX groups compared to the CNT group. In conclusions, results from this study support favourable effects of TA on degree of clinically detectable lameness, and on synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage morphological parameters, both with direct intra-articular administration and remote site administration as compared to placebo treatment. The clinical use of IA administered TA in horses may be therapeutically beneficial in selected cases of osteochondral fragmentation and osteoarthritis.
Article: MMP-mediated collagen breakdown induced by activated protein C in equine cartilage is reduced by corticosteroids.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The plasma serine protease activated protein C (APC) is synthesized by human chondrocytes at sites of pathological cartilage fibrillation. APC levels are increased in osteoarthritis (OA) synovial fluid, and in vitro APC has been shown to synergize with interleukin-1beta (IL-1) to promote degradation from ovine cartilage. A model of equine cartilage degradation was established and used to explore corticosteroid activities. Intraarticular corticosteroids are a commonly prescribed treatment for joint disease, however their role in disease modification remains unclear. APC synergized with IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), promoting significant collagen degradation from equine cartilage explants within 4 days, but did not augment glycoaminoglycan (GAG) release. APC activated pro-matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 but not pro-MMP-9, as assessed by gelatin zymography. APC did not directly activate pro-MMP-13. Dexamethasone, triamcinolone, and methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) were evaluated at concentrations between 10(- 5)M and 10(-10)M. High concentrations significantly increased GAG release from IL-1+APC-treated explants. With the exception of MPA at 10(-10)M, all concentrations of corticosteroids caused significant decreases in IL-1+APC-driven hydroxyproline loss. Treatment with corticosteroids suppressed expression of MMP-1, -3, and -13 mRNA. The collagenolysis associated with IL-1+APC synergy, and the inhibition of this effect by corticosteroids may involve gelatinase activation and downregulation of MMP expression, respectively.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 09/2009; 28(3):370-8. · 2.81 Impact Factor
Article: Clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intra-articular administration of autologous conditioned serum in horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intra-articular administration of autologous conditioned serum (ACS) in the treatment of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in horses. 16 horses. Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in 1 middle carpal joint of all horses. In 8 placebo- and 8 ACS-treated horses, 6 mL of PBS solution or 6 mL of ACS was injected into the osteoarthritis-affected joint on days 14, 21, 28, and 35, respectively; PBS solution was administered in the other sham-operated joints. Evaluations included clinical assessment of lameness and synovial fluid analysis (performed biweekly); gross pathologic and histologic examinations of cartilage and synovial membrane samples were performed at necropsy. No adverse treatment-related events were detected. Horses that were treated with ACS had significant clinical improvement in lameness, unlike the placebo-treated horses. Among the osteoarthritis-affected joints, ACS treatment significantly decreased synovial membrane hyperplasia, compared with placebo-treated joints; although not significant, the ACS-treated joints also appeared to have less gross cartilage fibrillation and synovial membrane hemorrhage. The synovial fluid concentration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (assessed by use of mouse anti-interleukin-1 receptor antagonist antibody) was increased following treatment with ACS. Results of this controlled study indicated that there was significant clinical and histologic improvement in osteoarthritis-affected joints of horses following treatment with ACS, compared with placebo treatment. On the basis of these findings, further controlled clinical trials to assess this treatment are warranted, and investigation of the mechanisms of action of ACS should be pursued concurrently.American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2007; 68(3):290-6. · 1.27 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of sodium hyaluronate and methylprednisolone acetate on proteoglycan synthesis in equine articular cartilage explants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine effects of sodium hyaluronate (HA) on corticosteroid-induced cartilage matrix catabolism in equine articular cartilage explants. 30 articular cartilage explants from fetlock joints of 5 adult horses without joint disease. Articular cartilage explants were treated with control medium or medium containing methylprednisolone acetate (MPA; 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 mg/mL), HA (0.1, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/mL), or both. Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis was measured by incorporation of sulfur 35-labeled sodium sulphate into PGs, and PG degradation was measured by release of radiolabeled PGs into the medium. Total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in media and explants and total explant DNA were determined. Methylprednisolone acetate caused a decrease in PG synthesis, whereas HA had no effect. Only the combination of MPA at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL and HA at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL increased PG synthesis, compared with control explants. Methylprednisolone acetate increased degradation of newly synthesized PGs into the medium, compared with control explants, and HA alone had no effect. Hyaluronate had no effect on MPA-induced PG degradation and release into media. Neither MPA alone nor HA alone had an effect on total cartilage GAG content. Methylprednisolone acetate caused an increase in release of GAG into the medium at 48 and 72 hours after treatment. In combination, HA had no protective effect on MPA-induced GAG release into the medium. Total cartilage DNA content was not affected by treatments. Our results indicate that HA addition has little effect on corticosteroid-induced cartilage matrix PG catabolism in articular cartilage explants.American Journal of Veterinary Research 02/2005; 66(1):48-53. · 1.27 Impact Factor