Traditional Practice of Women from India: Pregnancy, Childbirth and Newborn Care
ABSTRACT This article describes maternal and child care practices among women from India. As in all cultures, certain beliefs exist surrounding what facilitates a good pregnancy and its outcome, as well as negative sanctions. These practices continue to influence many immigrant women to whom western practices are either unknown or unacceptable. An understanding of the traditional belief system of such women can case their adaptation into the Canadian and U.S. health care systems.
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- "for doctor's appointments. During this time, the primary care of the newborn, along with housework, is assumed by other female relatives (Choudhry, 1997). Research suggests cultural traditions are protective and may be key components in prevention of depression (Stern & Kruckman, 1983). "
ABSTRACT: To explore Asian Indian mothers' perspectives of postpartum depression (PPD) and mental health help-seeking behavior. Qualitative exploratory design. Using convenience sampling, postpartum mothers were recruited through flyers posted in public places and on social media sites. Postpartum depression risk was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) prior to qualitative interviews. Content analysis methods were used to extract themes from participant narratives. Twelve self-identified, married, Asian Indian mothers, aged between 29 and 40 years, living in Northern California, who gave birth to a healthy infant within the last 12 months, took part in this study. Scores on the EPDS indicated two participants were at an increased risk for developing PPD. Content analysis revealed two emerging themes: (1) Culture-specific postpartum practices and ceremonies and their role in maternal-infant postpartum recovery; and (2) Maternal mental health help-seeking behavior. Nurses taking care of women during the extended prenatal and postpartum period have the unique opportunity to build rapport with their patients which can offer a window of opportunity to educate and help dispel myths about PPD symptoms and treatment. To promote successful maternal-infant outcomes, PPD education should be initiated at the first prenatal appointment, continue during the pregnancy, and be incorporated into well-baby visits through the first postpartum year. Education should include signs and symptoms of PPD as well as importance of timely mental-health help-seeking.MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing 07/2015; 40(4):256-61. DOI:10.1097/NMC.0000000000000146 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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- "Therefore, extra precautions regarding the placenta should be taken. A similar study of traditional care practices in India and Tanzania also reported that the placenta should be buried to safeguard the child from evil spirits [16,51]. "
ABSTRACT: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79191. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079191 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "Thus, the spread of a particular fashion for delivery position may be another sociocultural factor that has exacerbated the magnitude of the obstetric dilemma in recent decades, and increasing interest in challenging many aspects of the institutionalization of childbirth (Marland and Rafferty, 1997) may therefore have implications for management of the obstetric dilemma. Women in Asian populations have been observed to restrict their dietary intake in the last trimester of pregnancy , specifically to avoid large babies (Brems and Berg, 1989; Choudhry, 1997; Christian et al., 2006). Unlike in Holocene southern African foragers, where short stature was not associated with reduced obstetric proportions (Kurki, 2007), the short stature of south Asian women has been associated with significantly reduced pelvic inlet and outlet dimensions, though also with small neonates (Pan, 1929). "
ABSTRACT: The difficult birth process of humans, often described as the "obstetric dilemma," is commonly assumed to reflect antagonistic selective pressures favoring neonatal encephalization and maternal bipedal locomotion. However, cephalo-pelvic disproportion is not exclusive to humans, and is present in some primate species of smaller body size. The fossil record indicates mosaic evolution of the obstetric dilemma, involving a number of different evolutionary processes, and it appears to have shifted in magnitude between Australopithecus, Pleistocene Homo, and recent human populations. Most attention to date has focused on its generic nature, rather than on its variability between populations. We re-evaluate the nature of the human obstetric dilemma using updated hominin and primate literature, and then consider the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to variability in its magnitude. Both maternal pelvic dimensions and fetal growth patterns are sensitive to ecological factors such as diet and the thermal environment. Neonatal head girth has low plasticity, whereas neonatal mass and maternal stature have higher plasticity. Secular trends in body size may therefore exacerbate or decrease the obstetric dilemma. The emergence of agriculture may have exacerbated the dilemma, by decreasing maternal stature and increasing neonatal growth and adiposity due to dietary shifts. Paleodemographic comparisons between foragers and agriculturalists suggest that foragers have considerably lower rates of perinatal mortality. In contemporary populations, maternal stature remains strongly associated with perinatal mortality in many populations. Long-term improvements in nutrition across future generations may relieve the dilemma, but in the meantime, variability in its magnitude is likely to persist. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 01/2012; 149(S55). DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22160 · 2.51 Impact Factor