Percutaneous inferior vena caval approach for long-term central venous access.
ABSTRACT The authors report their experience with the translumbar inferior vena cava (IVC) approach for central venous access during a 6-year period at three teaching hospital sites.
Twenty-nine percutaneous IVC central venous access catheters were inserted in 22 patients during a 6-year period in the radiology departments of three teaching hospital sites. All patients had undergone unsuccessful attempts at conventional central venous access. Information was gathered by retrospective radiologic and hospital chart review.
All attempted placements were successful. Catheters were in place for a total of 3,510 catheter days. The average length of catheter placement was 121 days (range, 14-536 days). Life-table analysis predicted catheter function rates of 55% and 29% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Three procedure-related complications occurred. A lower pole branch of the right renal artery was inadvertently entered with a 22-gauge needle during attempted IVC puncture in one patient without clinical sequelae. A second patient developed a small groin hematoma at the femoral venous puncture site, which resolved spontaneously. A third patient developed a moderate retroperitoneal hematoma, which resolved without specific intervention. The sepsis rate was 2.8 infections per 1,000 catheter days with an average time to infection of 127 days (range, 10-536 days).
In the authors' experience of 29 translumbar central venous catheter insertions, all attempts were successful. Percutaneous central venous access via the IVC is a safe and effective option for patients in whom more conventional access is not possible.
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ABSTRACT: Central venous access for children with caval occlusion remains a major challenge to pediatric surgeons. Traditionally, children with superior and inferior vena cava (SVC, IVC) thrombosis have often required a thoracotomy to directly cannulate the azygos system or right atrium (RA). Recently, the possibility of placing tunneled RA catheters (RACs) by a percutaneous translumbar or transhepatic approach has become available. We report our experience of seven children with SVC and IVC obstruction who have received 11 transhepatic and 4 translumbar RACs from 1987 to 1991. All but one child was less than 2.5 years old and all were chronically dependent on parenteral nutrition. All catheters were placed in the angiography suite under general anesthesia using ultrasound guidance and Seldinger technique. This technique was successful in all seven children. Perioperative complications included accidental extubation in one patient and aspiration pneumonia in another. Mechanical complications requiring RAC replacement occurred 5 times in three infants (greater than 2,650 catheter days) and included catheter dislodgement (2) and thrombosis (3). In the patients with catheter thrombosis, the existing tract was successfully wired and the catheter exchanged on three occasions. Thrombolytic therapy was effective in restoring catheter patency on three other occassions. Nine episodes of catheter sepsis occurred in five children. Two late deaths occurred from infection. Of the five remaining children, four are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and have a translumbar or transhepatic catheter in situ and one child has adapted successfully to enteral feedings. Percutaneous translumbar or transhepatic IVC catheters provide excellent alternative routes for prolonged central venous access in those patients whose traditional vascular access sites are no longer available. Complications of the technique itself were minimal and although late catheter complications were not infrequent, they appear to be comparable to the standard approaches reported.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/1992; 27(2):165-9. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous translumbar approach for long-term hemodialysis catheter access. Seventeen double-lumen hemodialysis catheters were placed percutaneously from the right flank to the inferior vena cava in 12 patients. Catheter placement was successful in all patients. Adequate flow rates were obtained. Seven episodes of thrombosis-related access failure occurred (0.33 episodes/100 days at risk). Two catheters were removed and five catheters were managed with urokinase infusion. Six episodes of infection occurred (0.28 episodes/100 days at risk). Four required catheter removal. Two catheters were removed after defects developed in the catheter. Five catheters were removed electively because catheter hemodialysis was discontinued. Four catheters remained in place. Cumulative patency was 52% at 6 months and 17% at 12 months. Translumbar inferior vena cava hemodialysis catheters represent a valuable alternative in cases in which traditional catheter sites have failed.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/1995; 25(5):732-7. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most patients who need peripheral blood stem cell transplantation do not have peripheral venous access that would allow apheresis for stem cell collection. Subclavian apheresis catheters have an unacceptably high incidence of thrombosis-related access failure. A technique has been developed for translumbar placement of permanent, subcutaneously tunneled, silicone rubber apheresis catheters into the inferior vena cava, and 40 of these catheters have been placed in 36 patients for stem cell collection. Twenty-six catheters have been left in place for venous access during the transplantation procedure. These catheters had a very low rate (2.3%) of apheresis-related related complications. Access failure was attributed to thrombosis in 10 catheters (25%) and to mechanical complications in another 9 (22%), but access was regained in all but 4 of these cases. The catheters functioned well as venous access devices during transplantation, only rarely developing complications during that time. Venograms performed at the time of removal of 16 catheters showed no case of caval occlusion. A residual fibrin sheath was found around 14 catheters. There was no clinical or computed tomographic scan evidence of bleeding after placement or removal of the catheters. Percutaneously placed, translumbar inferior vena cava apheresis catheters provide a safe and effective route for the collection of peripheral blood stem cells for transplantation, and they can be left in place for venous access during transplantation.Transfusion 01/1990; 30(6):511-5. · 3.53 Impact Factor