Reduction of cancer risk with an oral supplement of selenium.
ABSTRACT The hypothesis that a dietary supplement of selenium (Se) may reduce cancer risk was tested experimentally in humans. Patients with histories of basal/squamous cell carcinomas of the skin were assigned randomly in double-blind fashion to daily oral supplements of either Se-enriched yeast (200 micrograms Se/day), or a low-Se yeast placebo. A total of 1312 patients recruited in 1983-1990 were followed with regular dermatologic examinations through 1993 for a total of 8269 person-years of observation. Skin cancer diagnoses were confirmed histologically. Plasma Se concentration was determined at 6-12 months intervals. All deaths and patient-reported illnesses were recorded; reported cancers were confirmed and documented by consultation with the patient medical care providers. The results indicate that Se did not significantly affect the primary endpoints: incidences of recurrent basal/squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. However, Se-treatment was associated with reductions in several secondary endpoints: total mortality, mortality from all cancers combined, as well as the incidence of all cancers combined, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer. The consistencies of these associations over time, between study clinics and for the leading cancer sites strongly suggests benefits of Se-supplementation for this cohort of patients, supporting the hypothesis that supplemental Se can reduce cancer risk. Although Se did not shown protective effects against non-melanoma skin cancers, the suggested reductions in risks to other frequent cancers demand further evaluation in well controlled clinical intervention trials.
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ABSTRACT: The soil contents of trace elements selenium, chromium and manganese were measured to determine their impact on the plasma levels of 160 healthy adult Nigerians in five different experimental locations in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, South -South Nigeria. The mean (±SD) soil selenium, chromium and manganese concentrations were 2.86 ± 3.97, 15.93 ± 3.35 and 90.33± 42.65 mg/kg, respectively. Manganese soil concentration was the highest and selenium soil concentration was the lowest in all the locations. The mean (±SD) plasma selenium, chromium and manganese concentrations were 0.006, 0.111 ± 0.031 and 0.028 ± 0.024 mg /1, respectively. There were no significant differences between the concentrations of the trace elements in the soil and the plasma levels as determined by t-test. Plasma levels of chromium and manganese according to the study were adequate but that of selenium was low.AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 08/2013; 12(Vol 12(34)):5339-5346. DOI:10.5897/AJB12.107 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in the human body is poorly understood. We have investi-gated the concentrations of urinary As and Se in three ethnic groups (n = 63) in the United Kingdom and show that there is a positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.001) between total concentrations of As and Se and that the ratio of these two elements is stable, with a mean value (±SD) of 0.7 ± 0.4. Furthermore, concentrations of individual arsenic species methylarsonate (MA), dimethylarsinate (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AB) in the urine samples show a positive correlation with total Se (As(III) and As(V) were not detected). The intra-individual variation of the As:Se ratio also remains stable over time, as determined by monitoring a volunteer over a period of one year, and deviates only after recent seafood consumption. It appears that the ratio is also stable across diverse populations across different cultures and continents, evident from our calculation of As:Se ratio from concentrations of these elements found in urine samples from different populations published in the literature. Our study involved analysis of 63 urine samples from three ethnic groups (White Caucasian n = 20, Asian n = 21 and Somali n = 22), 58 urine samples from 29 Ramadan fasting volunteers and 12 from one volunteer whose urine samples were collected over a period of one year. All the participants completed a lifestyle questionnaire and were asked to refrain from eating seafood or fish for three days prior to collection of the sample. Total As and Se in urine were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As species (AB, DMA, MA, As(III), As(V)) were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with ICP-MS. Mean ± SD As:Se ratios of 0.8 ± 0.4, 0.7 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.2, 0.7 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.3 were obtained for the Asian, White Caucasian, Somali, fasting, and one volunteer respectively, giving an overall mean of 0.7 ± 0.4 (SD). It is noteworthy, that when comparing ethnic differences, the Somali group shows a statistically significant lower As:Se ratio (0.4 ± 0.2, p < 0.05) compared to Asian and White Caucasian groups; this is ascribed to lower urinary As concentrations in this group. The study over one year with a single volunteer revealed that recent (within 3 days) seafood consumption results in a significantly different (p < 0.05) As:Se ratio (4.0). We have calculated from the literature the value of As:Se for populations, exposed to As through drinking water, can range from 2.0–9.6. Based on our own work and the values we calculated from other studies we suggest that the baseline range for mean As:Se ratio is 0.4–1.2, provided that the urine samplesMagnetic Resonance Imaging 08/2013; 23233(2):225. DOI:10.3233/BSI-130046 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in the West, it is ranked as the number two cancer death for non-smokers in many developing countries. This case study demonstrates how an early stage prostate cancer might be treated by a comprehensive and evidence-based nutritional cum phytotherapy if patient is given the option of using it. According to the ANMP (www.anmp.org.my), a nutritional therapy is used to treat, control, or prevent chronic disorders by impacting on the hormonal, neurological, and immune functions of the patient. It may take a decade or longer to develop a malignancy. Three quarter of prostate cancer occurs in men over fifty five years when they go through andropause, which is evidenced partly by elevation in their oestrogen levels. However, being overweight or obese may trigger early progression of prostate cancer in men.01/2012; DOI:10.6000/1927-3037/2012.01.03.06