Article

Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research)

Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, University College, London.
BMJ Clinical Research (Impact Factor: 14.09). 10/1997; 315(7110):740-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an individual's feelings, views, and patterns are revealed without control or manipulation from the researcher. The participant is active in making informed decisions throughout all aspects of the research process for the primary purpose of imparting social change; a specific action (or actions) is the ultimate goal. The following paper will contextualize PAR in terms of its history, principles, definitions, and strengths, as well as discuss challenges and practical suggestions for using PAR. In addition, it will examine focus groups and interviews as methods for data collection, the role of PAR in education, and the types of research for which PAR is best suited. "You cannot understand a system until you try to change it" (Lewin, 1946) Participatory Action Research (PAR) is one option in qualitative research methodology that should be considered and understood. Qualitative research integrates the methods and techniques of observing, documenting, analyzing, and interpreting characteristics, patterns, attributes, and meanings of human phenomena under study (Gillis & Jackson, 2002; Leininger, 1985). The purpose of qualitative methodology is to describe and understand, rather than to predict and control (Streubert & Carpenter, 1995). Qualitative methods focus on the whole of human experience and the meanings ascribed by individuals living
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    ABSTRACT: Chin cup is regarded as the oldest orthodontic appliance for the management of Class III malocclusion. To assess its clinical effectiveness in pre-pubertal patients, a meta-analysis on specific cephalometric values is attempted. Detailed electronic and hand searches with no restrictions were performed up to July 2014. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies, i.e. prospective controlled trials (pCCTs) and (retrospective) observational studies (OS), were included. Analyses were performed by calculating the standard difference in means and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals, using the random effects model. Data heterogeneity and risk of bias assessment of the included studies were also performed. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed twice. The level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05 for all tests, except for heterogeneity (P ≤ 0.1). Seven treated groups from five studies (no RCTs, four pCCTs, one OS) were eligible for inclusion, assessing only the short-term occipital pull chin cup effects. In total, 120 treated patients (mean age: 8.5 to 11 years) compared with 64 untreated individuals (mean age: 7.3 to 9.89 years) were assessed by means of 13 cephalometric variables. The overall quality of these studies was low to medium. In comparison to untreated individuals, the SNB and gonial angles decreased significantly following chin cup use, whereas ANB, Wits appraisal, SN-ML, N-Me and overjet increased. For the rest of the variables, no statistically significant differences were detected. Although the occipital chin cup affects significantly a number of skeletal and dentoalveolar cephalometric variables, indicating an overall positive effect for the treatment of Class III malocclusion, data heterogeneity and between-studies variance impose precaution in the interpretation of the results.
    12/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s40510-014-0062-9
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    Edited by Franco Franchignoni, 10/2010; PI-ME Pavia., ISBN: 978-88-7963-256-0

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