Signaling pathways through which insulin regulates CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) phosphorylation and gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Correlation with GLUT4 gene expression.
ABSTRACT Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with insulin (IC50 approximately 200 pM insulin) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IC50 approximately 200 pM IGF-1) stimulates dephosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), a transcription factor involved in preadipocyte differentiation. As assessed by immunoblot analysis of one- and two-dimensional PAGE, insulin appears to dephosphorylate one site within p30C/EBPalpha and an additional site within p42C/EBPalpha. Consistent with insulin causing dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, addition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (e.g. wortmannin) blocks insulin-stimulated dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. In the absence of insulin, wortmannin or LY294002 enhance C/EBPalpha phosphorylation. Similarly, blocking the activity of FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein with rapamycin increases phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha in the absence of insulin. Dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha by insulin is partially blocked by rapamycin, consistent with a model in which activation of FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase results in dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. The dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha by insulin, in conjunction with the insulin-dependent decline in C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein, has been hypothesized to play a role in repression of GLUT4 transcription by insulin. Consistent with this hypothesis, the decline of GLUT4 mRNA following exposure of adipocytes to insulin correlates with dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. However, the repression of C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein levels by insulin is blocked with an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway without blocking the repression of GLUT4 mRNA, thus dissociating the regulation of C/EBPalpha and GLUT4 mRNAs by insulin. A decline in C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein may not be required to suppress GLUT4 transcription because insulin also induces expression of the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta (liver inhibitory protein), which blocks transactivation by C/EBP transcription factors.
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ABSTRACT: Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the anti-diabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3 T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μM of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time PCR were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01). The expression of key transcription factors associated with adipocyte differentiation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1c), and the expression of fatty acid synthase increased upon treatments with phytic acid and myo-inositol (p < 0.05). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature adipocytes increased with phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments (p < 0.01). In addition, mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of tyrosine in IRS1 increased upon phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose-dependently (p < 0.01). These results suggest that phytic acid and myo-inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis.Nutrition Research 08/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overgrowth of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity occurs as a result of adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Expansion and renewal of adipocytes relies on proliferation and differentiation of white adipocyte progenitors (WAP); however, the requirement of WAP for obesity development has not been proven. Here, we investigate whether depletion of WAP can be used to prevent WAT expansion. We test this approach by using a hunter-killer peptide designed to induce apoptosis selectively in WAP. We show that targeted WAP cytoablation results in a long-term WAT growth suppression despite increased caloric intake in a mouse diet-induced obesity model. Our data indicate that WAP depletion results in a compensatory population of adipose tissue with beige adipocytes. Consistent with reported thermogenic capacity of beige adipose tissue, WAP-depleted mice display increased energy expenditure. We conclude that targeting of white adipocyte progenitors could be developed as a strategy to sustained modulation of WAT metabolic activity.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 24 October 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.148.Cell Death and Differentiation 10/2014; 22(2). · 8.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of an aqueous extract ofMAC-ST/001 (a new polyherbal formulation) which was given once daily to rats at different doses. The animals were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic control groups. The duration of each experiment lasted from 1 week to 1 month, and the results were compared with that of the standard hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), which was given once daily. In this study, biochemical and histopathological parameters were studied in streptozotacin (STZ) (single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) decrease in their body weight and serum amylase with marked elevation in blood glucose, serum cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and serum transaminases (AST and ALT) after 1 week till the 28th day of diabetes. Cytotoxicity of MAC-ST/001 formulation was also studied on C2C12, 3T3-L1, and HepG2 cells through MTT assay. Histological examination of the liver and pancreas of normal control, diabetic control, and drug-treated rats revealed significant results. Finally, it was concluded that administration of this MAC-ST/001 extract reversed most blood and tissue changes caused by STZ-induced diabetes in rats.Protoplasma 06/2013; 250(3):741-749. · 3.17 Impact Factor