Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with insulin (IC50 approximately 200 pM insulin) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IC50 approximately 200 pM IGF-1) stimulates dephosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), a transcription factor involved in preadipocyte differentiation. As assessed by immunoblot analysis of one- and two-dimensional PAGE, insulin appears to dephosphorylate one site within p30C/EBPalpha and an additional site within p42C/EBPalpha. Consistent with insulin causing dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, addition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (e.g. wortmannin) blocks insulin-stimulated dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. In the absence of insulin, wortmannin or LY294002 enhance C/EBPalpha phosphorylation. Similarly, blocking the activity of FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein with rapamycin increases phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha in the absence of insulin. Dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha by insulin is partially blocked by rapamycin, consistent with a model in which activation of FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase results in dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. The dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha by insulin, in conjunction with the insulin-dependent decline in C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein, has been hypothesized to play a role in repression of GLUT4 transcription by insulin. Consistent with this hypothesis, the decline of GLUT4 mRNA following exposure of adipocytes to insulin correlates with dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. However, the repression of C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein levels by insulin is blocked with an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway without blocking the repression of GLUT4 mRNA, thus dissociating the regulation of C/EBPalpha and GLUT4 mRNAs by insulin. A decline in C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein may not be required to suppress GLUT4 transcription because insulin also induces expression of the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta (liver inhibitory protein), which blocks transactivation by C/EBP transcription factors.
"M A N U S C R I P T A C C E P T E D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (NCCS, Pune, India) were cultured and differentiated as described previously (Hemati et al., 1997). Briefly, preadipocytes cells were grown for 2 days post confluence in DMEM (Invitrogen, USA) supplemented with 10% calf serum (Invitrogen, USA). "
"3T3-L1 preadipocytes (NCCS, Pune, India) were cultured and differentiated as described previously (Hemati et al., 1997). Briefly, preadipocytes cells were grown for 2 days post confluence in DMEM (Invitrogen, USA) supplemented with 10% calf serum (Invitrogen, USA). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue secretes adipokines that regulate insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and other peripheral tissues critical to glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance is associated with severe alterations in adipokines characterized by release of increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue. The role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation on adipokines in relation to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance is not completely explored. For the first time, we have evaluated the ability of Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR ligand, in restoring the disturbance in adipokine secretion and insulin resistance in palmitate treated 3T3-L1 cells and adipose tissues of High fat diet (HFD) rats. CDCA suppressed several of the tested pro-inflammatory adipokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, Chemerin, PAI, RBP4, resistin, vaspin), and enhanced the major anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing adipokines (adiponectin, leptin). CDCA suppressed the activation of critical inflammatory regulators such as NF-κB and IKKβ which are activated by palmitate treatment in differentiated cells and HFD in rats. We show the altered adipokines in insulin resistance, its association with inflammatory regulators, and the role of CDCA in amelioration of insulin resistance by modulation of adipokines.
"3T3-L1 cells (ATCC, CL173, DS Pharma Biomedical Co., Osaka, Japan) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM; Wako Pure Chemical, Osaka, Japan) containing 10% (v/v) calf serum (BioWest). Adipocyte differentiation was done essentially as described but with minor modifications . Briefly, 2 days post confluence, the medium was changed to DMEM containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (ICN Biomedicals, Aurora, OH, USA), 10 µg/ml insulin, 1 µM dexamethasone, 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and 10 µM pioglitazone. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which may cause down-regulation of mTOR signaling in adipocytes. A similar effect on AMPK, mTOR and IRS1 phosphorylation was found in adipocytes treated with rosiglitazone. These results suggest evodiamine improves glucose tolerance and prevents the progress of insulin resistance associated with obese/diabetic states, at least in part, through inhibition of mTOR-S6K signaling and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83264. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083264 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Robert M Clancy, Androo J Markham, Joanne H Reed, Miroslav Blumenberg, Marc K Halushka, Jill P Buyon
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