The relationship between the World Trade Organisation and the Office International des Epizooties.
ABSTRACT The provisions of the World Trade Organisation Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures are designed to extend the liberalisation of trade, without increasing the risk to public, animal or plant health. The international standards set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) will be used as a benchmark by World Trade Organisation panels and committees when evaluating national sanitary-based regulations. For a significant liberalisation of trade to be achieved, Member Countries are faced with a dual mandate: a) each country must put these concepts into practice when making import/export decisions; and b) each country must make the commitment to support the OIE in its efforts to develop and review sanitary standards. Of equal importance to the application of standards is the cultural change that trade and regulatory communities must undergo. The author examines the role of Member Countries and the OIE in the implementation of this important agreement.
- SourceAvailable from: Katharina D C Stärk01/1998;
- Virus Research 02/2003; 91(1):101-44. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Agroterrorism refers to attacks with any of a variety of biological or chemical agents against commercial crops or livestock populations, either as targets in their own right or as vehicles to attack humans. An agroterrorism incident would generally involve bioterrorism, and potential agents include pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi. Within the context of agroterrorism, livestock agroterrorism is described as the intentional introduction of an animal-borne infectious disease with the goal of spreading fear, producing economic losses, and/or threatening social stability. Causing human illness or human casualties is another potential goal of livestock agroterrorism. Livestock agroterrorism is considered to be attractive to terrorists because biological agents that affect livestock or poultry are more readily available and more difficult to monitor than are agents that infect humans. In addition, a terrorist attack on animal husbandry may have huge economic consequences with no human casualties. Therefore, a biological attack that targets the animal husbandry sector should be regarded as both a "high-consequence" event and a grave national security risk. This review addresses the use of biological weapons that may be used to target livestock or poultry rather than agricultural inputs or equipment. It first defines livestock agroterrorism. Then, the common priority disease agents that may be used to target livestock or poultry in an agroterrorist attack and that are attractive to terrorists are outlined.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 10/2012; 9(10):869-77. · 2.28 Impact Factor