Disease expression in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused by a putative null mutation in the RPGR gene.

Department of Ophthalmology, Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA.
Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science (Impact Factor: 3.66). 09/1997; 38(10):1983-97.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the disease expression in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) caused by a putative null mutation in the RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator) gene.
In a family with XLRP, haplotype analysis was performed with polymorphic microsatellite markers from the Xp chromosomal region, and genomic polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to identify sequence variations in the RPGR gene. Hemizygotes and heterozygotes were evaluated clinically and with visual function tests. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on heterozygotes. Postmortem donor retinas from a heterozygote were examined by microscopy and immunocytochemistry.
X-linked inheritance was confirmed by haplotype analysis using Xp markers. Sequence analysis of the RPGR gene identified a single base pair change, a G-->T transversion, that converts codon 52 GGA (Gly) to TGA (stop codon); the mutation segregates with the disease. A hemizygote in the third decade of life had barely measurable rod function and severely impaired cone function that diminished further over a 7-year interval. Heterozygotes varied in degree of disease expression from mild to severe. Perimetry showed loci with normal rod and cone sensitivity interspersed with loci having either equal rod and cone dysfunction or rod > cone dysfunction. Electroretinographic photoreceptor responses had equal reductions in rod and cone maximal amplitude. OCT cross sectional reflectance images of retinal regions with severe dysfunction showed reduced thickness of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choriocapillaris (RPE-CC) complex and increased reflections posteriorly. Regions with mild dysfunction showed similar OCT findings but with preserved retinal thickness. Retinal histopathology in a heterozygote revealed loss of photoreceptors throughout, with retention of only a few islands of cones with tiny or absent outer segments and rods lacking outer segments.
This RPGR gene mutation, in its mildest expression in heterozygotes, causes a relatively equal disturbance of rod and cone photoreceptor function. Detectable structural change by OCT at the level of the RPE-CC can be present in patches of retina with minimal functional disturbance. More advanced disease stages in heterozygotes show greater rod than cone dysfunction, and the end stage in hemizygotes and heterozygotes is that of typical RP, with only barely detectable cone function from residual cones in a thinned retina with abnormal RPE and choriocapillaris.


Available from: Artur Cideciyan, Jun 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) caused by mutations in the RPGR gene is a severe and early onset form of retinal degeneration, and no treatment is currently available. Recent evidence in two clinically relevant canine models shows that adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated RPGR gene transfer to rods and cones can prevent disease onset and rescue photoreceptors at early- and mid-stages of degeneration. There is thus a strong incentive for conducting long-term, preclinical efficacy and safety studies, while concomitantly pursuing the detailed phenotypic characterization of XLRP disease in patients that may benefit from such corrective therapy.
    Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 10/2014; 5(2). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a017392 · 7.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe the entity of Lyonization in ocular eye diseases, along with its clinical and counseling implications. Several X-linked ocular diseases such as choroideremia, X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, and X-linked ocular albinism may have signs of Lyonization on ocular examination and diagnostic testing. These findings may aid in the proper diagnosis of ocular disease in both female carriers and their affected male relatives. Manifestations of Lyonization in the eye may help in the diagnosis of X-linked ocular diseases which may lead to accurate diagnosis, appropriate molecular genetic testing and genetic counseling.
    Current opinion in ophthalmology 07/2013; DOI:10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283641f91 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate visualization of the tapetal-like reflex using current imaging modalities and evaluate SD-OCT changes in known carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP); the objective being the development of an optimal protocol for clinicians to identify carriers. Ten XLRP carriers (19 eyes) were examined using color fundus photography, 488 nm reflectance (488-R), near-infrared reflectance (NIR-R), autofluorescence (AF) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging (Spectralis SLO-OCT, Heidelberg). Horizontal line scans through the fovea were acquired in all subjects and in a group of 10 age-similar controls. Peripheral SD-OCT scans (extending to 27.5° eccentricity) were also acquired in both eyes of 7 carriers. MP-1 microperimetery (10-2 pattern; Nidek) was performed in one eye of each carrier. For the XLRP carriers, a tapetal reflex was observed with all imaging modalities in 8 of 19 eyes. It had the same retinal location on color fundus, 488-R and NIR-R imaging but a different location on AF. The tapetal reflex was most easily detected in 488-R images. The horizontal foveal SD-OCT scans were qualitatively normal, but measurements showed significant outer retinal layer thinning in all eyes. Additionally, the 14 eyes with peripheral SD-OCTs demonstrated patchy loss of the inner segment ellipsoid band. Microperimetry exhibited patchy visual sensitivity loss in 9 eyes. Full field ERGs were variable, ranging from normal to severely abnormal rod and cone responses. Our findings suggest that an optimal protocol for identifying carriers of XLRP should include 488-R imaging in a multimodal approach. Peripheral SD-OCT imaging and central retinal layer quantification revealed significant structural abnormalities.
    Experimental Eye Research 05/2013; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2013.05.003 · 3.02 Impact Factor