Opposing BMP and EGF signalling pathways converge on the TGF-beta family mediator Smad1.
ABSTRACT The growth factor TGF-beta, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and related factors regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, controlling the development and maintenance of most tissues. Their signals are transmitted through the phosphorylation of the tumour-suppressor SMAD proteins by receptor protein serine/threonine kinases (RS/TKs), leading to the nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of SMAD proteins. Here we report that Smadl, which mediates BMP signals, is also a target of mitogenic growth-factor signalling through epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Phosphorylation occurs at specific serines within the region linking the inhibitory and effector domains of Smad1, and is catalysed by the Erk family of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In contrast to the BMP-stimulated phosphorylation of Smad1, which affects carboxy-terminal serines and induces nuclear accumulation of Smad1, Erk-mediated phosphorylation specifically inhibits the nuclear accumulation of Smad1. Thus, Smadl receives opposing regulatory inputs through RTKs and RS/TKs, and it is this balance that determines the level of Smad1 activity in the nucleus, and so possibly the role of Smad1 in the control of cell fate.
SourceAvailable from: Raffaele Strippoli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a form of renal replacement therapy whose repeated use can alter dialytic function through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis, eventually leading to PD discontinuation. The peritoneum from Cav1(-/-) mice showed increased EMT, thickness, and fibrosis. Exposure of Cav1(-/-) mice to PD fluids further increased peritoneal membrane thickness, altered permeability, and increased the number of FSP-1/cytokeratin-positive cells invading the sub-mesothelial stroma. High-throughput quantitative proteomics revealed increased abundance of collagens, FN, and laminin, as well as proteins related to TGF-β activity in matrices derived from Cav1(-/-) cells. Lack of Cav1 was associated with hyperactivation of a MEK-ERK1/2-Snail-1 pathway that regulated the Smad2-3/Smad1-5-8 balance. Pharmacological blockade of MEK rescued E-cadherin and ZO-1 inter-cellular junction localization, reduced fibrosis, and restored peritoneal function in Cav1(-/-) mice. Moreover, treatment of human PD-patient-derived MCs with drugs increasing Cav1 levels, as well as ectopic Cav1 expression, induced re-acquisition of epithelial features. This study demonstrates a pivotal role of Cav1 in the balance of epithelial versus mesenchymal state and suggests targets for the prevention of fibrosis during PD. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.EMBO Molecular Medicine 12/2014; 7(3). DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404127 · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deregulation of cell signaling homeostasis is a predominant feature of cancer initiation and progression. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which regulates numerous biological processes of various tissues in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Aberrant activity of TGFβ signaling is well known to play dual roles in cancer, depending on tumor stage and cellular context. The crucial roles of TGFβ in modulating the tumor microenvironment, its contribution to the accumulation of mechanical forces within the solid constituents of a tumor and its effects on the effective delivery of drugs are also becoming increasingly clear. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in the efforts to unravel the effects of TGFβ signaling in various components of the tumor microenvironment and how these influence the generation of forces and the efficacy of drugs. We also report the implications of tumor mechanics in cancer therapy and the potential usage of anti‑TGFβ agents to enhance drug delivery and augment existing therapeutic approaches. These findings provide new insights towards the significance of targeting TGFβ pathway to enhance personalized tumor treatment.International Journal of Oncology 01/2015; 46(3). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2015.2816 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The BMP ligand Dpp, operates as a long range morphogen to control many important functions during Drosophila development from tissue patterning to growth. The BMP signal is transduced intracellularly via C-terminal phosphorylation of the BMP transcription factor Mad, which forms an activity gradient in developing embryonic tissues. Here we show that Cyclin dependent kinase 8 and Shaggy phosphorylate three Mad linker serines. We demonstrate that linker phosphorylations control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal across rapidly developing embryonic tissues. Shaggy knockdown broadened the range of the BMP-activity gradient and increased high threshold target gene expression in the early embryo, while expression of a Mad linker mutant in the wing disc resulted in enhanced levels of C-terminally phosphorylated Mad, a 30% increase in wing tissue, and elevated BMP target genes. In conclusion, our results describe how Mad linker phosphorylations work to control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal in rapidly developing Drosophila tissues.Scientific Reports 11/2014; 4:6927. DOI:10.1038/srep06927 · 5.08 Impact Factor