Epilepsy as a “Natural Laboratory” for the Study of Human Memory

Brain and Cognition (Impact Factor: 2.48). 11/1997; 35(1):1-4. DOI: 10.1006/brcg.1997.0924
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired memory is a common and often debilitating complaint in patients with epilepsy. Overlapping variables such as seizure control, attentional dysfunction, and mood disorders further complicate diagnosis and management. Direct therapy for memory deficits associated with epilepsy is rarely attempted. The varied pharmacological (AED selection, cholinesterase inhibitors, stimulants, antidepressants, and herbal supplements) and nonpharmacological approaches to cognitive remediation in epilepsy patients are reviewed.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to identify the 10 Bacteroides fragilis group species - Bacteroides caccae, B. distasonis, B. eggerthii, B. fragilis, B. merdae, B. ovatus, B. stercoris, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. uniformis and B. vulgatus. These 10 species were first divided into three subgroups by multiplex PCR-G, followed by three multiplex PCR assays with three species-specific primer mixtures for identification to the species level. The primers were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene. The established two-step multiplex PCR identification scheme was applied to the identification of 155 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group that were previously identified to the species level by phenotypic tests. The new scheme was more accurate than phenotypic identification, which was accurate only 84.5% of the time. The multiplex PCR scheme established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of the B. fragilis group species. This will permit more accurate assessment of the role of various B. fragilis group members in infections and of the degree of antimicrobial resistance in each of the group members.
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    ABSTRACT: Several newer generation fluoroquinolones have demonstrated good in vitro activity against Bacteroides species; particularly when first introduced. However, resistance of Bacteroides to quinolones appears to be increasing. From 1994 to 2001, consecutive non-duplicated Bacteroides isolates from clinical specimens in 12 US hospitals were sent to the Tufts anaerobe laboratory for identification and susceptibility testing. NCCLS recommended methodology for testing was employed. Breakpoints of 8 mg/l for trovafloxacin and 4 mg/l for moxifloxacin were used to examine susceptibility trends. In total, 4434 isolates were analysed. The geometric mean MIC increased significantly for clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin and moxifloxacin. Resistance to trovafloxacin (breakpoint of 8 mg/l) and moxifloxacin (breakpoint of 4 mg/l) increased from 8% to 25% and from 30% to 43%, respectively. Increased resistance was observed for all Bacteroides species, for all sites of isolation, and in 11 of 12 participating hospitals. Bacteroides vulgatus and isolates from decubitus ulcers were associated with increased resistance. During 2001, trovafloxacin and moxifloxacin resistance among blood isolates was 27% and 52%, respectively. The association between increased resistance and year of isolation remained significant after adjustment for hospital, species and site of isolation. Fluoroquinolone resistance among Bacteroides isolated in the US has markedly increased during the years 1994 to 2001. High rates of resistance among blood isolates are of particular concern.
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