ABSTRACT Bladder wash cytology provides superior results for the detection of bladder malignancies than does voided urine analysis. Image analysis systems have been developed for quantification of cytologic features. In this study, routine bladder wash cytology is compared with an automated image analysis system (QUANTICYT). We studied a random set of 100 bladder wash samples from a population of 1614 patients in follow-up after bladder cancer. Four experienced pathologists interpreted the same 100 Papanicolaou-stained slides. Cytologic and image analysis results were compared for prediction of a cystoscopic lesion, histologic abnormalities, and tumor recurrence. After application of receiver operating characteristic curves, prediction of a cystoscopic lesion by cytology and image analysis was comparable. Both the image analysis system and the cytologic examination detected all of the high-grade lesions. Image analysis was superior to cytologic analysis for the prediction of tumor recurrence after normal findings at cystoscopic examination.