Oncogenic c-Ki-ras but not oncogenic c-Ha-ras up-regulates CEA expression and disrupts basolateral polarity in colon epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT Colon carcinomas commonly contain mutations in Ki-ras4B, but very rarely in Ha-ras, suggesting that different Ras isoforms may have distinct functions in colon epithelial cell biology. In an earlier study we had demonstrated that oncogenic Ki-ras4BVal-12, but not oncogenic Ha-rasVal-12, blocks the apicobasal polarization of colon epithelial cells by preventing normal glycosylation of the integrin beta1 chain of the collagen receptor. As a result, only the Ki-ras mutated cells exhibited altered cell to substratum attachment, whereas mutation of either Ras isoform activated mitogen-activated protein kinases. We have now asked whether intercellular adhesion proteins implicated in establishing basolateral polarity in colon epithelial cells are modulated by oncogenic Ki-Ras4BVal-12 proteins but not oncogenic Ha-RasVal-12 proteins. The embryonic adhesion protein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was up-regulated on the mRNA and protein levels in each of three stable Ki-rasVal-12 transfectant lines but in none of three stable Ha-rasVal-12 transfectant lines. The elevated protein levels of CEA in Ki-ras4BVal-12 transfectant cells were decreased by blocking expression of Ki-ras4BVal-12 with antisense oligonucleotides. N-cadherin levels were decreased in only the Ki-ras transfectants, whereas E-cadherin levels were unchanged. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that Ki-ras4BVal-12 transfectant cells did not polarize into cells with discrete apical and basal regions and so could not restrict expression of CEA to the apical region. These unpolarized cells displayed elevated levels of CEA all along their surface membrane where CEA mediated random, multilayered associations of tumor cells. This aggregation was both calcium-independent and blocked by Fab' fragments of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody col-1. Trafficking of the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B may also be altered when cell polarity cannot be established. Ki-ras4BVal-12 transfectant cells expressed 2-fold elevated protein levels of the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B but did not up-regulate cathepsin B mRNA expression. One function of oncogenic c-Ki-Ras proteins in colon cancer progression may be to up-regulate CEA and thus to prevent the lateral adhesion of adjacent colon epithelial cells that normally form a monolayer in vivo.
- SourceAvailable from: Esther Castellano[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: H-ras, N-ras, and K-ras are canonical ras gene family members frequently activated by point mutation in human cancers and coding for 4 different, highly related protein isoforms (H-Ras, N-Ras, K-Ras4A, and K-Ras4B). Their expression is nearly ubiquitous and broadly conserved across eukaryotic species, although there are quantitative and qualitative differences of expression depending on the tissue and/or developmental stage under consideration. Extensive functional studies have determined during the last quarter century that these Ras gene products are critical components of signaling pathways that control eukaryotic cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. However, because of their homology and frequent coexpression in various cellular contexts, it remained unclear whether the different Ras proteins play specific or overlapping functional roles in physiological and pathological processes. Initially, their high degree of sequence homology and the observation that all Ras isoforms share common sets of downstream effectors and upstream activators suggested that they were mostly redundant functionally. In contrast, the notion of functional specificity for each of the different Ras isoforms is supported at present by an increasing body of experimental observations, including 1) the fact that different ras isoforms are preferentially mutated in specific types of tumors or developmental disorders; 2) the different transforming potential of transfected ras genes in different cell contexts; 3) the distinct sensitivities exhibited by the various Ras family members for modulation by different GAPs or GEFs; 4) the demonstration that different Ras isoforms follow distinct intracellular processing pathways and localize to different membrane microdomains or subcellular compartments; 5) the different phenotypes displayed by genetically modified animal strains for each of the 3 ras loci; and 6) the specific transcriptional networks controlled by each isoform in different cellular settings.Genes & cancer 03/2011; 2(3):216-31.
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ABSTRACT: The development of metastatic tumours is a complex process that consists of a series of cellular events that shift neoplastic cells from the primary tumour to a distant location (Chambers et al., 2002). Cancer cells must first detach from the primary tumour and invade the surrounding stroma, degrade the basement membrane, disseminate and survive into the circulatory systems, and ultimately extravasate and colonize a new microenvironment. Research of the past decades has revealed that complex and redundant signalling pathways in both tumour and the microenvironment govern tumour cell invasion at the primary site, survival in the bloodstream, and progressive outgrowth at distant sites. In this chapter, we highlight the role of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathways in progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) to advanced metastatic disease, with a particular focus on those leading to activation of the proliferative RAS/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and survival Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways in epithelial colorectal cancer cells. KeywordsReceptor tyrosine kinase-RAS-RAF-ERK-PI3K-PTEN-AKT-MAPK07/2010: pages 205-241;
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ABSTRACT: Mutational activation of KRAS promotes various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma. Knowledge of the molecular targets mediating the downstream effects of activated KRAS is limited. Here, we provide the KRAS target proteins and N-glycoproteins using human bronchial epithelial cells with and without the expression of activated KRAS (KRAS(V12)). Using an OFFGEL peptide fractionation and hydrazide method combined with subsequent LTQ-Orbitrap analysis, we identified 5713 proteins and 608 N-glycosites on 317 proteins in human bronchial epithelial cells. Label-free quantitation of 3058 proteins (≥2 peptides; coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 20%) and 297 N-glycoproteins (CV ≤ 20%) revealed the differential regulation of 23 proteins and 14 N-glycoproteins caused by activated KRAS, including 84% novel ones. An informatics-assisted IPA-Biomarker® filter analysis prioritized some of the differentially regulated proteins (ALDH3A1, CA2, CTSD, DST, EPHA2, and VIM) and N-glycoproteins (ALCAM, ITGA3, and TIMP-1) as cancer biomarkers. Further, integrated in silico analysis of microarray repository data of lung adenocarcinoma clinical samples and cell lines containing KRAS mutations showed positive mRNA fold changes (p < 0.05) for 61% of the KRAS-regulated proteins, including biomarker proteins, CA2 and CTSD. The most significant discovery of the integrated validation is the down-regulation of FABP5 and PDCD4. A few validated proteins, including tumor suppressor PDCD4, were further confirmed as KRAS targets by shRNA-based knockdown experiments. Finally, the studies on KRAS-regulated N-glycoproteins revealed structural alterations in the core N-glycans of SEMA4B in KRAS-activated human bronchial epithelial cells and functional role of N-glycosylation of TIMP-1 in the regulation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell invasion. Together, our study represents the largest proteome and N-glycoproteome data sets for HBECs, which we used to identify several novel potential targets of activated KRAS that may provide insights into KRAS-induced adenocarcinoma and have implications for both lung cancer therapy and diagnosis.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 07/2012; 11(10):901-15. · 7.25 Impact Factor