Increased beta adrenoceptor activation overcomes conditioned olfactory learning deficits induced by serotonin depletion.
ABSTRACT It was hypothesized that 5-HT2 receptors in the olfactory bulb prime the bulbar response to a beta adrenoceptor mediated unconditioned stimulus (UCS) during odor preference learning in 1-week-old rat pups. The ability of 4 mg/kg of isoproterenol + stroking and 6 mg/kg of isoproterenol + no stroking to induce normal odor preference learning in pups depleted of bulbar 5-HT in the present study supports the hypothesis. The inverted-U curve relation between UCS strength and learning also appears to occur within the bulb.
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ABSTRACT: Stress is a powerful modulator of brain structure and function. While stress is beneficial for survival, inappropriate stress dramatically increases the risk of physical and mental health problems, particularly when experienced during early developmental periods. Here we focus on the neurobiology of the infant rat's odor learning system that enables neonates to learn and approach the maternal odor and describe the unique role of the stress hormone corticosterone in modulating this odor approach learning across development. During the first nine postnatal days, this odor approach learning of infant rats is supported by a wide range of sensory stimuli and ensures attachment to the mother's odor, even when interactions with her are occasionally associated with pain. With maturation and the emergence of a stress- or pain-induced corticosterone response, this odor approach learning terminates and a more adult-like amygdala-dependent fear/avoidance learning emerges. Strikingly, the odor approach and attenuated fear learning of older pups can be re-established by the presence of the mother, due to her ability to suppress her pups' corticosterone release and amygdala activity. This suggests that developmental changes in stress responsiveness and the stimuli that produce a stress response might be critically involved in optimally adapting the pup's attachment system to its respective ecological niche.Behavioral sciences. 06/2012; 2(2):79-102.