Classification of collected trot, passage and piaffe based on temporal variables.
ABSTRACT The objective was to determine whether collected trot, passage and piaffe could be distinguished as separate gaits on the basis of temporal variables. Sagittal plane, 60 Hz videotapes of 10 finalists in the dressage competitions at the 1992 Olympic Games were analysed to measure the temporal variables in absolute terms and as percentages of stride duration. Classification was based on analysis of variance, a graphical method and discriminant analysis. Stride duration was sufficient to distinguish collected trot from passage and piaffe in all horses. The analysis of variance showed that the mean values of most variables differed significantly between passage and piaffe. When hindlimb stance percentage was plotted against diagonal advanced placement percentage, some overlap was found between all 3 movements indicating that individual horses could not be classified reliably in this manner. Using hindlimb stance percentage and diagonal advanced placement percentage as input in a discriminant analysis, 80% of the cases were classified correctly, but at least one horse was misclassified in each movement. When the absolute, rather than percentage, values of the 2 variables were used as input in the discriminant analysis, 90% of the cases were correctly classified and the only misclassifications were between passage and piaffe. However, the 2 horses in which piaffe was misclassified as passage were the gold and silver medallists. In general, higher placed horses tended toward longer diagonal advanced placements, especially in collected trot and passage, and shorter hindlimb stance percentages in passage and piaffe.
- SourceAvailable from: Willem Back
Dataset: Lashley et al Vet J 2014
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ABSTRACT: Among veterinary surgeons, interest has recently increased in the role of the horse's neck as a causative factor in complex locomotor disturbances. Specifically, controversy surrounds the trend for the head to be carried behind the vertical (BHV) in contravention of Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules. The aim of this study was to determine whether the head angulation of elite dressage horses has changed over the last 25 years, and whether head angulation correlates with the competition score awarded. Head angle was measured from videos recorded during the Grand Prix test at the 1992 Olympic Games and the 2008 World Cup Final, during collected canter (CC), collected trot (CT), passage (Pa), and piaffe (Pi). Head angulations were BHV in CC and CT in both 1992 and 2008. The likelihood of being BHV during Pa or Pi was significantly greater in 2008 than in 1992 (P < 0.05). Higher scores correlated significantly with head positions that were further BHV during Pi in 2008 (P < 0.05). Head angulations were orientated BHV in all paces in 2008, whereas in 1992 this was only the case for CT and CC. These findings support the hypothesis that, in recent years, FEI dressage judges have not penalised horses for a head position BHV. The findings also support the need for further studies of the effects of head and neck position on the health of horses.The Veterinary Journal 08/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although anecdotal reports of increased orthopaedic injury risk in equine sports exist, there is little scientific evidence to support this. To test whether horses undertaking a single competitive sport have increased risk of specific injuries compared to those used for general purpose riding (GP); and whether injury type varies with sport category and performance level. Data from 1069 records of horses undergoing orthopaedic evaluation (1998-2003) and meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Sport category (GP, showjumping, dressage, eventing, racing), level (nonelite or elite) and diagnosis were recorded. Effects of sport category and level on probability of a specific diagnosis were assessed using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression was used to determine which competitive sports and levels increased risk of injury compared with GP. Overall there was a significant effect of sport category and level on diagnosis (P<0.0001). There was significant difference between anatomical site injured and sport category (P<0.0001); a high risk of forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injury in elite eventing (P<0.0001) and elite showjumping (P = 0.02); distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) injury in elite showjumping (P = 0.002); and hindlimb suspensory ligament injury in elite (P<0.0001) and nonelite (P = 0.001) dressage. There was a low risk of tarsal injury in elite eventing (P = 0.01) and proximal DDFT injury in dressage (P = 0.01). Horses competing in different sports are predisposed to specific injuries; particular sports may increase the risk of injury at certain anatomical sites; and the type and site of injury may reflect the type and level of performance. These findings could guide clinicians in the diagnosis of sport related injuries.Equine Veterinary Journal 08/2006; · 2.37 Impact Factor