Role of the retinoblastoma protein in the pathogenesis of human cancer.
ABSTRACT The retinoblastoma gene (RB-1) was originally identified as the gene involved in hereditary retinoblastoma. However, RB-1 mutations are found in a number of common mesenchymal and epithelial malignancies. The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) acts as a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in DNA synthesis and cell-cycle control. In this regard, the functional interaction between pRB and the E2F transcription factor family appears to be critical. The pRB-E2F interaction is, in turn, regulated by a pathway that includes cyclin D1, cdk4, and p16. Mutations that affect this pathway have been documented in nearly every type of adult cancer. Thus, perturbation of pRB function may be required for the development of cancer. Insights into the biochemical functions of pRB, and its upstream regulators, may form the basis for the development of novel antineoplastic agents.
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factor E2F-1 and its interaction with pRb provide a key point of control in cell proliferation. E2F-1 participates in both cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and in cells exists with a DP dimerization partner protein, the most prominent being DP-1. By mining the tumor tissue and cancer cell line encyclopedia genomic databases, we identified the first somatic mutations in the DP-1 gene and describe 53 distinct mutation events here. The mutations are mostly missense mutations, but also include nonsense and frame-shift mutations that result in truncated DP-1 derivatives. Mutation occurs throughout the DP-1 gene but generally leaves protein dimerization activity intact. This allows the mutant derivatives to affect the properties of the E2F-1/DP-1 heterodimer through a transdominant mechanism, which changes the DNA binding, transcriptional activation and pRb-binding properties of the heterodimer. In particular, many DP-1 mutants were found to impair E2F-1-dependent apoptosis. Our results establish that somatic mutations in DP-1 uncouple normal control of the E2F pathway, and thus define a new mechanism that could contribute to aberrant proliferation in tumor cells.Oncogene advance online publication, 12 August 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.316.Oncogene 08/2013; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a lethal cancer and carries a poor prognosis because of late diagnosis. Identification of molecular markers may aid early diagnosis. We assessed the expression of CDKN2A/RB1 in the esophageal mucosa and its association with the histology. Esophageal biopsies were collected from 38 patients with no esophageal lesion (group 1), from iodine-negative areas of 108 alcoholics/smokers (group 2), and from tumor and nontumor areas in 41 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (group 3). The histologic diagnosis was compared with immunoexpression of CDKN2A/RB1. In group 1, histology showed normal mucosa/mild esophagitis and no expression of CDKN2A/RB1. In groups 2 and 3, the diagnosis was: normal mucosa (38.4%), esophagitis (44.4%), dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (2.8%), and carcinoma (14.3%). The immunoexpression of CDKN2A/RB1 increased in a stepwise manner from the normal mucosa, to esophagitis, dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, and carcinoma (P<0.01). CDKN2A/RB1 was not expressed in the esophageal mucosa of patients without risk factors. p16/pRb expression increased in a stepwise manner, according to the severity of histologic lesions, in biopsies from patients exposed to risk factors or with carcinoma. Esophageal mucosa exposed to risk factors with the expression of those proteins may be at risk for malignant transformation.07/2014;
- Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 10/2013; · 0.41 Impact Factor