Role of the retinoblastoma protein in the pathogenesis of human cancer.
ABSTRACT The retinoblastoma gene (RB-1) was originally identified as the gene involved in hereditary retinoblastoma. However, RB-1 mutations are found in a number of common mesenchymal and epithelial malignancies. The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) acts as a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in DNA synthesis and cell-cycle control. In this regard, the functional interaction between pRB and the E2F transcription factor family appears to be critical. The pRB-E2F interaction is, in turn, regulated by a pathway that includes cyclin D1, cdk4, and p16. Mutations that affect this pathway have been documented in nearly every type of adult cancer. Thus, perturbation of pRB function may be required for the development of cancer. Insights into the biochemical functions of pRB, and its upstream regulators, may form the basis for the development of novel antineoplastic agents.
- SourceAvailable from: Alfonso Baldi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cell cycle is the cascade of events that allows a growing cell to duplicate all its components and split into two daughter cells. Cell cycle progression is mediated by the activation of a highly conserved family of protein kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are also regulated by related proteins called cdk inhibitors grouped into two families: the INK4 inhibitors (p16, p15, p19, and p18) and the Cip/Kip inhibitors (p21, p27, and p53). Several studies report the importance of cell-cycle proteins in the pathogenesis and the prognosis of lung cancer. This paper will review the most recent data from the literature about the regulation of cell cycle. Finally, based essentially on the data generated in our laboratory, the expression, the diagnostic, and prognostic significance of cell-cycle molecules in lung cancer will be examined.10/2011; 2011:605042. DOI:10.4061/2011/605042
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The integrity of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) pathway is critical for restraining inappropriate proliferation and suppressing tumor development in a plethora of tissues. Here adenovirus-mediated RB deletion in the liver of adult mice led to DNA replication in the absence of productive mitotic condensation. The replication induced by RB loss was E2F-mediated and associated with the induction of DNA damage and a nontranscriptional G2/M checkpoint that targeted the accumulation of Cyclin B1. In the context of RB deletion or E2F activation, there was an increase in hepatocyte ploidy that was accompanied by hyperphysiological assembly of prereplication complexes. In keeping with this dysregulation, initiation of DNA replication was readily observed in hepatocytes that were phenotypically in G2/M. Under such conditions, uncoupling of replication initiation from mitotic progression led to altered genome ploidy in the liver. Interestingly, these findings in hepatocytes were not recapitulated in the basally proliferative tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, where RB deletion, while increasing DNA replication, did not lead to a profound uncoupling from mitosis. Combined, these findings demonstrate the critical role of RB in controlling cell-cycle transitions and underscore the importance of intrinsic tissue environments in resultant phenotypes.Molecular biology of the cell 02/2011; 22(7):931-9. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E10-11-0895 · 5.98 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Similar to their human counterparts, the Drosophila Rbf1 and Rbf2 Retinoblastoma family members control cell cycle and developmentally regulated gene expression. Increasing evidence suggests that Rbf proteins rely on multiprotein complexes to control target gene transcription. We show here that the developmentally regulated COP9 signalosome (CSN) physically interacts with Rbf2 during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the CSN4 subunit of the COP9 signalosome co-occupies Rbf target gene promoters with Rbf1 and Rbf2, suggesting an active role for the COP9 signalosome in transcriptional regulation. The targeted knockdown of individual CSN subunits leads to diminished Rbf1 and Rbf2 levels and to altered cell cycle progression. The proteasome-mediated destruction of Rbf1 and Rbf2 is increased in cells and embryos with diminished COP9 activity, suggesting that the COP9 signalosome protects Rbf proteins during embryogenesis. Previous evidence has linked gene activation to protein turnover via the promoter-associated proteasome. Our findings suggest that Rbf repression may similarly involve the proteasome and the promoter-associated COP9 signalosome, serving to extend Rbf protein lifespan and enable appropriate programs of retinoblastoma gene control during development.Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2007; 18(4):1179-86. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E06-09-0790 · 4.55 Impact Factor