Aortic cross-clamping influences regional net release and uptake rates of tissue-type plasminogen activator in pigs.
ABSTRACT The key regulator of intravascular fibrinolysis, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), is released from a dynamic endothelial storage pool. The aim of the study was to investigate regional t-PA net release and uptake rates in response to infra-renal aortic cross-clamping (AXC) and declamping (DC).
Anesthetized pigs were studied during 5 min of AXC, followed by a 35-min declamping (DC) period. Arterio-venous concentration gradients of total and active t-PA, as well as respective plasma flows, were simultaneously obtained across the preportal, hepatic, coronary and pulmonary vascular beds. Plasma levels of total t-PA (ELISA with purified porcine t-PA as standard), and active t-PA (spectrophotometric functional assay) were determined.
Prior to AXC, we found a high net release rate of total t-PA across the preportal vascular bed (1700 ng.min-1 P < 0.001), and a high hepatic net uptake (4900 ng.min-1, P < 0.001), while coronary and pulmonary t-PA net fluxes were small and variable. AXC per se did not induce significant alterations in net fluxes of t-PA. Following DC, preportal and coronary net releases of total t-PA increased (to 2900 ng.min-1 and 60 ng.min-1, respectively). Despite an increase in hepatic net uptake of total t-PA (to 6100 ng.min-1) after DC, a significant increase in hepatic venous total t-PA occurred.
The release and uptake of t-PA is indicated to be dynamic and organ-specific. DC induces an acute profibrinolytic reaction in preportal organs. The high hepatic t-PA uptake capacity restricts preportal profibrinolytic events to affect the systemic circulation.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is the key factor in initiating endogenous fibrinolysis in the vascular compartment. Regulated release of t-PA from endothelial stores is rapidly induced by several humoral factors as well as coagulation activation products. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that regional myocardial ischemia induces regulated release of t-PA in the coronary vasculature in vivo. Methods: Healthy anesthetized (pentobarbital) pigs (n = 8) were studied before and after a 10-min left anterior descending region coronary artery occlusion (LAD). Coronary fluxes of lactate, total t-PA antigen (ELISA, detecting both complex bound and free fraction) and active t-PA (functional assay detecting biological free fraction) were determined at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min of reflow. Results: Coronary occlusion induced myocardial lactate production in all animals. Net coronary release of total t-PA, which was 21 ng/min during control, increased rapidly during reflow with a peak after only 1 min (136 ng/min), and returned to baseline within 3 min. Net release of active t-PA mirrored the overall net release response, but fell short of statistical significance. Conclusion: Data indicate a local myocardial profibrinolytic response following regional ischemia, which may serve as a prompt defence against coronary thromboembolic events.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 03/2002; 46(3):271-278. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-6576.2002.t01-1-460308.x · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemia induces cardiac tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) release, declining by repeated periods of ischemia. However, the mechanisms and cellular sources are unknown. Sympathetic nerve stimulation (SS) and bradykinin (BK), an endogenous inducer of endothelial tPA release, may play roles, potentially involving different sources or mechanisms revealed by different release patterns. Therefore, we compared the cardiac tPA release patterns during repeated coronary BK infusions and SS, both with an ensuing period of local myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Nine pigs were subjected to four periods of coronary BK infusion (4 min) and another nine animals to four periods of SS (4 min). Finally, 10 min of I/R was induced in both groups. The single-peaked BK-induced tPA release declined toward baseline by repeated infusions, but tPA release reappeared during I/R. In contrast, total tPA release during repeated SS and subsequent I/R was more stable, and SS-induced total tPA and norepinephrine (NE) releases were strongly correlated. Surprisingly, the instantaneous SS-induced tPA release was biphasic with a stable first peak, and a second peak declining toward baseline by repeated stimulations. The fluctuations in cardiac release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and the endogenous BK inhibitor angiotensin-converting enzyme, could not explain the diverging tPA release patterns. Different tPA release patterns were demonstrated during SS and BK stimulation, as well as diverging responses to repeated stimulations and subsequent I/R. This study demonstrates strong association between tPA and NE during SS and possibly two different sources or mechanisms for SS-induced tPA release.Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis 09/2012; DOI:10.1097/MBC.0b013e328357d388 · 1.38 Impact Factor