Interplay between sodium and calcium dynamics in granule cell presynaptic terminals.
ABSTRACT Fluorescent indicators were used to detect stimulus-evoked changes in presynaptic levels of intracellular sodium (Na(i)) and calcium (Ca(i)) in granule cell parallel fibers in brain slices from rat cerebellum. Ca(i) increased during stimulation, and three exponentials were needed to approximate its return to prestimulus levels. Ca(i) decayed to approximately 10% of peak levels with tau approximately 100 ms, to approximately 1% of peak values with tau approximately 6 s, and then returned to prestimulus levels with tau approximately 1-2 min. After stimulation, Na(i) accumulated in two phases; one rapid, the other continuing for several hundred milliseconds. The return of Na(i) to prestimulus levels was well approximated by a double exponential decay with time constants of 6-17 s and 2-3 min. Manipulations that prevented calcium entry eliminated both the slow component of sodium entry and the rapid component of Na(i) decay. Reductions of extracellular sodium slowed the rapid phase of Ca(i) decay. These Ca(i) and Na(i) transients were well described by a model in which the plasma membrane of presynaptic boutons contained both a sodium/calcium exchanger and a calcium ATPase (Ca-ATPase). According to this model, immediately after stimulation the sodium/calcium exchanger removes calcium from the terminal more rapidly than does the Ca-ATPase. Eventually, the large concomitant sodium influx brings the exchanger into steady-state, leaving only the Ca-ATPase to remove calcium. This perturbs the equilibrium of the sodium/calcium exchanger, which opposes the Ca-ATPase, leading to a slow return of Ca(i) and Na(i) to resting levels.
Article: A mechanism for Na/Ca transport.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A model is developed which requires the binding of 4 Na+ to a carrier before a Ca binding site is induced on the opposite side of the membrane. Upon binding Ca, this carrier translocates Na and Ca. The existence of partially Na-loaded but nonmobile forms for the carrier (NaX, Na2X, Na3X) suffices to explain both the activating and the inhibitory effects of Na on the Ca transport reaction. Analytical expressions for Ca efflux and influx in terms of [Na]o, [Na]i, [Ca]o, [Ca]i, and Em are developed for the Na/Ca exchange system at equilibrium; these provide for a quantitative description of Ca fluxes. Under nonequilibrium conditions, appropriate modifications of the flux equations can be developed. These show a dependence of Ca efflux on [Ca]o and of Ca influx on [Ca]i. The large effect of internal ATP on Ca efflux and influx in squid axons, with no change in net Ca flux, can be understood on the single assumption that ATP changes the affinity of the carrier for Na at both faces of the membrane without providing an energy input to the transport reaction.The Journal of General Physiology 01/1978; 70(6):681-95. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ca2+ transport mechanisms were investigated using membrane vesicles prepared from guinea pig brain synaptosomes by hypotonic lysis. Two major mechanisms of Ca2+ transport exist, Na+-Ca2+ exchange and ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake. A third although minor component of Ca2+ uptake occurs under hyperpolarizing conditions (determined by increased uptake of [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium+). Na+-Ca2+ exchange results in a rapid increase of [Ca2+]i (up to 100-fold above [Ca2+]O), has a Km for Ca2+ of 40 microM, is fully reversed by added external Na+, is inhibited by agents dissipating Na+ gradients (monensin or veratridine), and is uninfluenced by mitochondrial inhibitors. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake has a higher affinity for CA2+ (Km = 12 microM), is dependent on Mg2+ or Mn2+, and is inhibited by beta, gamma-imidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate and VO43-, although only slightly (20%) inhibited by high concentrations of mitochondrial inhibitors. Both mechanisms are temperature-dependent, fully reversed by A23187, and higher in the presence of external K+. Ca2+ loaded in vesicles via ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake is rapidly effluxed upon addition of external Na+ (as for Na+-Ca2+ exchange). Therefore a single population of vesicles exists containing both Ca2+ transport mechanisms. The two mechanisms are independent since they accumulate Ca2+ additively, are selectively inhibited by monensin and VO43-, and show distinct specificity toward other divalent cations and La3+. Although independent, Na+ (100 mM) inhibits ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake (Km for ATP increased from 40 to 300 microM) in the absence of any net Na+ movement. Since Na+-Ca2+ exchange functions in the synaptosomal plasma membrane, the results suggest that both Ca2+ transport mechanisms originate from this membrane and function in the present experiments in inverted plasma membrane vesicles.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1981; 256(1):184-92. · 4.77 Impact Factor