Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate.
ABSTRACT In our studies to find natural compounds with chemopreventive efficacy in foods, using azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci and colonic mucosal cell proliferation as biomarkers, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), present in the edible plant Languas galanga from Thailand was found to be effective. This study was conducted to test the ability of ACA to inhibit AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis when it was fed to rats during the initiation or post-initiation phase. Male F344 rats were given three weekly s.c. injections of AOM (15 mg/kg body weight) to induce colonic neoplasms. They were fed diet containing 100 or 500 ppm ACA for 4 weeks, starting one week before the first dosing of AOM (the initiation feeding). The other groups were fed the ACA diet for 34 weeks, starting one week after the last AOM injection (the post-initiation feeding). At the termination of the study (week 38), AOM had induced 71% incidence of colonic adenocarcinoma (12/17 rats). The initiation feeding with ACA caused significant reduction in the incidence of colon carcinoma (54% inhibition by 100 ppm ACA feeding and 77% inhibition by 500 ppm ACA feeding, P = 0.03 and P = 0.001, respectively). The post-initiation feeding with ACA also suppressed the incidence of colonic carcinoma (45% inhibition by 100 ppm ACA feeding and 93% inhibition by 500 ppm ACA feeding, P = 0.06 and P = 0.00003, respectively). Such inhibition was dose-dependent and was associated with suppression of proliferation biomarkers, such as ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colonic mucosa, and blood and colonic mucosal polyamine contents. ACA also elevated the activities of phase II enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR), in the liver and colon. These results indicate that ACA could inhibit the development of AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis through its suppression of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa and its induction of GST and QR. The results confirm our previous finding that ACA feeding effectively suppressed the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci. These findings suggest possible chemopreventive ability of ACA against colon tumorigenesis.
Article: Development of a quantitative bioassay to assess preventive compounds against inflammation-based carcinogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reducing cancer incidence and mortality by use of cancer-chemopreventive agents is an important goal. We have established an in vitro bioassay that is able to screen large numbers of candidate chemicals that are positive for prevention of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. To accomplish this we have added candidate chemicals or vehicles and freshly isolated, fluorescent dye-labeled inflammatory cells that were overlaid on TNF-alpha-stimulated mouse endothelial cells in a 96-well plate. Inhibition of inflammatory cell attachment to the endothelial cells by the chemicals was quantified by the intensity of fluorescence from the adherent inflammatory cells after removing unattached cells. Using this assay, we selected two chemicals, auraptene and turmerones, for further study. As an in vivo test, diets containing these test chemicals were administered to mice with a piece of foreign body, gelatin sponge, that had been implanted to cause inflammation, and we found that the number of inflammatory cells that infiltrated into the subcutaneously implanted gelatin sponge was reduced compared to that found in the mice fed with a control diet. Moreover, diets containing either of the two chemicals prevented inflammation-based carcinogenesis in a mouse model. We found that the compounds reduced not only the number of infiltrating cells but also the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) in the infiltrated cells. Moreover, both compounds but not controls sustained the reducing activity in the inflammatory lesion, and this finding was confirmed by using non-invasive in vivo electron spin resonance. The newly established in vitro screening assay will be useful for finding biologically effective chemopreventive agents against inflammation-related carcinogenesis.Nitric Oxide 02/2011; 25(2):183-94. · 3.55 Impact Factor
Article: 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate suppresses angiogenesis-mediated human prostate tumor growth by targeting VEGF-mediated Src-FAK-Rho GTPase-signaling pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer therapeutic agents that are safe, effective and affordable are urgently needed. We describe that 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a component of Siamese ginger (Languas galanga), can suppress prostate tumor growth by largely abrogating angiogenesis. ACA suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, adhesion and tubulogenesis of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. ACA also inhibited VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and suppressed new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs in vivo. We further demonstrated that the mechanisms of this chavicol were to block the activation of VEGF-mediated Src kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) (Rac1 and Cdc42 but not RhoA) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) with ACA resulted in decreased cell viability and suppression of angiogenic factor production by interference with dual Src/FAK kinases. After subcutaneous administration to mice bearing human prostate cancer PC-3 xenografts, ACA (6 mg/kg/day) remarkably inhibited tumor volume and tumor weight and decreased levels of Src, CD31, VEGF and Ki-67. As indicated by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL analysis, microvessel density and cell proliferation were also dramatically suppressed in tumors from ACA-treated mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that ACA targets the Src-FAK-Rho GTPase pathway, leading to the suppression of prostate tumor angiogenesis and growth.Carcinogenesis 03/2011; 32(6):904-12. · 5.70 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of the tropical ginger compound, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, against tumor promotion in K5.Stat3C transgenic mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether a tropical ginger derived compound 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), suppresses skin tumor promotion in K5.Stat3C mice. In a two-week study in which wild-type (WT) and K5.Stat3C mice were co-treated with either vehicle, ACA, galanga extract, or fluocinolone acetonide (FA) and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), only the galanga extract and FA suppressed TPA-induced skin hyperproliferation and wet weight. None of these agents were effective at suppressing pTyr705 Stat3 expression. However, ACA and FA showed promising inhibitory effects against skin tumorigenesis in K5.Stat3C mice. ACA also suppressed phospho-p65 NF-kappaB activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for its action.Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 06/2012; 31(1):57. · 2.15 Impact Factor