High thrombopoietin production by hematopoietic cells induces a fatal myeloproliferative syndrome in mice.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effects of long-term, high-dose exposure to thrombopoietin (TPO), lethally irradiated mice were grafted with bone marrow cells infected with a retrovirus carrying the murine TPO cDNA. Mice were studied for 10 months after transplantation. In plasma, TPO levels were highly elevated (10(4) U/mL) throughout the course of the study. All mice developed a lethal myeloproliferative disorder evolving in two successive phases. During the first phase (7-9 weeks posttransplant), platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts rose four- and ten-fold, respectively, whereas hematocrits decreased slightly to 29% +/- 3%. The WBC were mainly mature granulocytes, but myeloid precursor cells were invariably observed as well as giant platelets with an irregular granule distribution. The striking features were a massive hyperplasia of megakaryocytes and granulocytes in the spleen and bone marrow and a hypoplasia of erythroblasts in bone marrow. Total numbers of megakaryocyte colony-forming cell, burst-forming unit-erythroid, and granulocyte macrophage colony-forming cells were increased but colony-forming unit-erythroid numbers decreased. From 10 weeks posttransplant and thereafter, WBC, platelets, and red blood cell numbers declined dramatically. The absolute numbers of progenitor cells were very low in the spleen and bone marrow, but sharply increased in the blood and peritoneal cavity. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in several organs. Histologic sections of the spleen and bones revealed severe fibrosis and osteosclerosis. The mean survival time was 7 months posttransplant and mice died with severe pancytopenia. Notably, two mice died between 3 and 4 months posttransplant with a leukemic transformation. This disorder was transplantable into secondary recipients who developed an attenuated form of the disease similar to the one previously described (Yan et al, Blood 86:4025, 1995). Taken together, our data show that high and persistent TPO production by transduced hematopoietic cells in mice results in a fatal myeloproliferative disorder that has a number of features in common with human idiopathic myelofibrosis.
03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0174-1
Article: Adenoviral-mediated TGF-beta1 inhibition in a mouse model of myelofibrosis inhibit bone marrow fibrosis development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myelofibrosis is characterized by excessive deposits of extracellular matrix proteins, which occur as a marrow microenvironment reactive response to cytokines released from the clonal malignant myeloproliferation. The observation that mice exposed to high systemic levels of thrombopoietin (TPO) invariably developing myelofibrosis has allowed demonstration of the crucial role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 released by hematopoietic cells in the onset of myelofibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TGF-beta1 inhibition could directly inhibit fibrosis development in a curative approach of this mice model. An adenovirus encoding for TGF-beta1 soluble receptor (TGF-beta-RII-Fc) was injected either shortly after transplantation (preventive) or 30 days post-transplantation (curative). Mice were transplanted with syngenic bone marrow cells transduced with a retrovirus encoding for murine TPO. All mice developed a myeloproliferative syndrome. TGF-beta-RII-Fc was detected in the blood of all treated mice, leading to a dramatic decrease in TGF-beta1 level. Histological analysis show that the two approaches (curative or preventive) were successful enough to inhibit bone marrow and spleen fibrosis development in this model. However, lethality of TPO overexpression was not decreased after treatment, indicating that in this mice model, myeloproliferation rather than fibrosis was probably responsible for the lethality induced by the disorder.Experimental Hematology 02/2007; 35(1):64-74. · 2.90 Impact Factor
Article: GATA1-mediated megakaryocyte differentiation and growth control can be uncoupled and mapped to different domains in GATA1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The DNA-binding hemopoietic zinc finger transcription factor GATA1 promotes terminal megakaryocyte differentiation and restrains abnormal immature megakaryocyte expansion. How GATA1 coordinates these fundamental processes is unclear. Previous studies of synthetic and naturally occurring mutant GATA1 molecules demonstrate that DNA-binding and interaction with the essential GATA1 cofactor FOG-1 (via the N-terminal finger) are required for gene expression in terminally differentiating megakaryocytes and for platelet production. Moreover, acquired mutations deleting the N-terminal 84 amino acids are specifically detected in megakaryocytic leukemia in human Down syndrome patients. In this study, we have systematically dissected GATA1 domains required for platelet release and control of megakaryocyte growth by ectopically expressing modified GATA1 molecules in primary GATA1-deficient fetal megakaryocyte progenitors. In addition to DNA binding, distinct N-terminal regions, including residues in the first 84 amino acids, promote platelet release and restrict megakaryocyte growth. In contrast, abrogation of GATA1-FOG-1 interaction leads to loss of differentiation, but growth of blocked immature megakaryocytes is controlled. Thus, distinct GATA1 domains regulate terminal megakaryocyte gene expression leading to platelet release and restrain megakaryocyte growth, and these processes can be uncoupled.Molecular and Cellular Biology 11/2005; 25(19):8592-606. · 5.53 Impact Factor