Early androgen effects on aggression in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
ABSTRACT Males are more likely than females to show aggressive behavior across species, ages, and situations, and these differences may be partly influenced by early hormones. We studied aggression in three samples of subjects with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who were exposed to high levels of androgen in the prenatal and early postnatal periods. Controls were siblings and first cousins similar in age. In Sample 1, adolescents and adults completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), which includes an Aggression scale. In Sample 2, adolescents and adults completed the MPQ and a paper-and-pencil version of Reinisch's Aggression Inventory. In Sample 3, parents rated the aggression of children aged 3-12, using a modification of Reinisch's Inventory. In all three samples, control males had higher aggression scores than control females. Further, as predicted, females with CAH had higher aggression than control females, but the difference was significant only in adolescents and adults. These results suggest that early androgens contribute to variability in human aggression.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the behavioral outcome in children with CAH and to identify the risk factors that may influence it. Participants (aged 6-18 years) included 29 girls and 20 boys with CAH and unaffected siblings (25 girls and 17 boys). Psychological adjustment was assessed with parent reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Information about disease characteristics was obtained from medical records. Our study reveals that there was higher incidence of parent-reported problem of anxious/depressed and withdrawn/depressed behaviours, somatic complaints, social, thought, and attention problems, and rule-breaking, aggressive, internalizing, and externalizing behaviour among children with CAH compared to controls. The prevalence of internalizing behaviour problems was higher in CAH boys compared with that of controls. Psychosocial adjustment of girls with CAH was found to be similar to unaffected female controls and was within the normal population range. Family income may be associated with behavioral outcome. Glucocorticoid dose may reflect disease severity which may be associated with behavioral outcome. We conclude that internalizing behavioral problem was prevalent among boys with CAH reflecting maladaptive adjustment in coping with chronic illness. This highlighted the importance of psychological and social support for the patients and their families.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014:483718. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The male predominance of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting, and the hypothetical heterochromatin sink are reviewed. These mechanisms likely contribute to etiology, instead of being simply causative to ASD. Environments, both internal and external, also play important roles in ASD's etiology. Early exposure to androgenic hormones and early maternal immune activation comprise environmental factors affecting sex-specific susceptibility to ASD. The gene-environment interactions underlying ASD, suggested here, implicate early prenatal stress as being especially detrimental to boys with a vulnerable genotype.Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 04/2014; · 7.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes and analyzes the results of laboratory and field studies 2D:4D digit ratio on 62 vertebrate species of different taxonomic groups. The values of the digit ratios measured as the ratio of the lengths of the second to fourth toes of limbs and it determined by the level of androgens in the blood during the prenatal development of the animal. The need of such study on animals is determined in search and the corresponding analogues development of adequate laboratory models to prove the possibility of using as a reliable morphological marker of phenomena of prenatal androgenization and a predictor of the behavior, physiological and psychological symptoms, fertility and risk of diseases. The largest numbers of studies have been conducted on birds, laboratory and wild mice, primates. It was demonstrated that, differences in the values of the digit ratio, determined not only from biological, but also from behavioral factors. Despite the different methods of determining the value of the digit ratio obtained by researchers at widely separated from each other by the level of organization and the ecological niche of vertebrates, they are in a narrowly limited range of 0.8-1.0. The inherent for human relative sexual and bilateral differences are absent for many species or are the opposite direction. Analyzed studies show the universality and the conservatism of the fundamental mechanisms of vertebrate limb morphogenesis. In both animals and humans whole range of thin specializations of hand in ontogeny defined by differential sensitivity of its tissue primordia for growth factors and steroid hormones.Fundamental Research (Russian). 06/2013;