Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that contribute to chemical-induced nasal carcinogenesis are either largely divergent between test species and humans, or we know very little of them. These factors, let alone the uncertainty associated with our knowledge gap, present a risk assessor with the formidable task of making judgments about risks to human health from exposure to chemicals that have been identified in rodent studies to be nasal carcinogens. This paper summarizes some of the critical attributes of the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of risk assessments for nasal carcinogens that must be accounted for by risk assessors in order to make informed decisions. Data on two example compounds, dimethyl sulfate and hexamethylphosphoramide, are discussed to illustrate the diversity of information that can be used to develop informed hypotheses about mode of action and decisions on appropriate dosimeters for interspecies extrapolation. Default approaches to interspecies dosimetry extrapolation are described briefly and are followed by a discussion of a generalized physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that, unlike default approaches, is flexible and capable of incorporating many of the critical species-specific factors. Recent advancements in interspecies nasal dosimetry modeling are remarkable. However, it is concluded that without the development of research programs aimed at understanding carcinogenic susceptibility factors in human and rodent nasal tissues, development of plausible modes of action will lag behind the advancements made in dosimetry modeling.
"Up through 1997, excellent reviews of xenobiotic effects in rodent nasal mucosa (NM) were provided by several investigators (Dahl and Hadley, 1991; Brittebo, 1997; Monticello and Morgan, 1997; Schuller, 1997). The need for an understanding of carcinogenic susceptibility factors in rodent and human nasal tissues in order to develop plausible modes of action has been highlighted (Bogdanffy et al., 1997). The purpose of this review is to expand on these earlier reports with new information on this topic directed to evaluation of human risk from systemic exposure to rodent nasal cytotoxins and carcinogens. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxicity and carcinogenicity in the mucosa of the nasal passages in rodents has been produced by a variety of organic chemicals which are systemically distributed. In this review, 14 such chemicals or classes were identified that produced rodent nasal cytotoxicity, but not carcinogenicity, and 11 were identified that produced nasal carcinogenicity. Most chemicals that affect the nasal mucosa were either concentrated in that tissue or readily activated there, or both. All chemicals with effects in the nasal mucosa that were DNA-reactive, were also carcinogenic, if adequately tested. None of the rodent nasal cytotoxins has been identified as a human systemic nasal toxin. This may reflect the lesser biotransformation activity of human nasal mucosa compared to rodent and the much lower levels of human exposures. None of the rodent carcinogens lacking DNA reactivity has been identified as a nasal carcinogen or other cancer hazard to humans. Some DNA-reactive rodent carcinogens that affect the nasal mucosa, as well as other tissues, have been associated with cancer at various sites in humans, but not the nasal cavity. Thus, findings in only the rodent nasal mucosa do not necessarily predict either a toxic or carcinogenic hazard to that tissue in humans.
"In humans, the relatively poorly developed olfactory region contains no turbinates and the olfactory mucosa comprises only approximately 8% of the total nasal cavity surface area. The cellular populations lining the upper respiratory tract of rodents and humans appear to be largely similar although descriptive comparisons are lacking in the literature (Bogdanffy et al., 1997). Perhaps the most significant difference is the cellular composition of olfactory tissue. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The respiratory tract is frequently identified as a site of toxicity for inhaled xenobiotic chemicals. Usually, these observations come from controlled animal studies. For these studies to be of quantitative value to human health risk assessment, species-specific factors governing dosimetry of inhaled substances must be taken into account. Toxicokinetics of vapours in the respiratory tract are defined by absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, as they are in other tissues; however, these concepts take on new dimensions when considering respiratory tract toxicants, especially those that elicit portal of entry effects by directly interacting with the tissue lining the respiratory tract. Species-specific factors related to anatomy, physiology and biochemistry govern inter-species extrapolation of toxicokinetics. This article discusses critical factors of respiratory tract kinetics that should be considered when developing physiological-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for inhaled vapours. Important considerations such as impact of regional airflow-delivery, water solubility, reactivity, and rates of local biotransformation on respiratory tract tissue dosimetry are highlighted. These factors can be accounted for only to a limited extent when using default approaches to extrapolate dosimetry of inhaled substances across species. On the other hand, PBTK modeling has the flexibility to accommodate many of the critical determinants of respiratory tract toxicity. PBTK models can also help identify the most critical toxicokinetic data necessary to replace defaults. PBTK approaches have led to more informed estimates of human target tissue dose, and therefore human health risk, especially where these risk assessments have been based on extrapolation of animal dosimetry studies. Experience derived from the development of more intensive case studies have, in turn, enabled simplified approaches to the use of PBTK modeling for respiratory tract toxicants. Whether simplified or highly complex, PBTK modeling approaches are proven to be of great utility to risk assesors interested in applying quantitative information to informed risk assessment evaluations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models require estimates of catalytic rate constants controlling the metabolism of xenobiotics. Usually, these constants are derived from whole tissue homogenates wherein cellular architecture and enzyme compartmentation are destroyed. Since the nasal cavity epithelium is composed of a heterogeneous cell population measurement of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes using homogenates could yield artifactual results. In this article a method for measuring rates of metabolism of vinyl acetate, a metabolism-dependent carcinogen, is presented that uses whole-tissue samples and PBPK modeling techniques to estimate metabolic kinetic parameters in tissue compartments. The kinetic parameter estimates were compared to those derived from homogenate experiments using two methods of tissue normalization. When the in vitro gas uptake constants were compared to homogenate-derived values, using a normalization procedure that does not account for tissue architecture, there was poor agreement. Homogenate-derived values from rat nasal tissue were 3- to 23-fold higher than those derived using the in vitro gas uptake method. When the normalization procedure for the rat homogenate-derived values took into account tissue architecture, a good agreement was observed. Carboxylesterase activity in homogenates of human nasal tissues was undetectable. Using the in vitro gas uptake technique, however, carboxylesterase activity was detected. Rat respiratory carboxylesterase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were about three and two times higher than those of humans, respectively. Activities of the rat olfactory enzymes were about equivalent to those of humans. K(m) values did not differ between species. The results suggest that the in vitro gas uptake technique is useful for deriving enzyme kinetic constants where effects of tissue architecture are preserved. Furthermore, the results suggest that caution should be exercised when scaling homogenate-derived values to whole-organ estimates, especially in organs of cellular heterogeneity.
C. Terry, S. Hays, A. McCoy, M. Aggarwal, L. McFadden, M. Bartels, R. Billington
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