Optimal trajectory for the basketball free throw.
ABSTRACT Using a theoretical approach, we studied the basketball free throw as a function of angle, speed and spin at release. The ball was constrained to the sagittal plane bisecting the hoop and normal to the backboard, and was permitted to bounce and change spin on both backboard and hoop. Combinations of angle, speed and spin resulting in a successful shot were calculated analytically. Standard deviations for a shooter's angle and speed were used to predict the optimal trajectory for a specific position of release. An optimal trajectory was predicted which had an initial angle and speed of approximately 60 degrees and 7.3 m s(-1) respectively over the domain of spins (-2 to +2 m s(-1) surface speed; -16 to +16 rad s). The effect of air resistance and the sagittal plane constraint on the predicted optimal trajectory were discussed and quantified. The optimal trajectory depended on both the anthropometric characteristics and accuracy of the shooter, but generally a high backspin with an angle and speed combination which sent the ball closer to the far rim of the basket than the near rim was advantageous. We provide recommendations for shooters as a function of the height of ball release.
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ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the optimal release condi-tions and corresponding arm movement pattern for the free throw for players classified as 3 to 4.5 on the international player classification system in wheel-chair basketball. A 2-D, three-segment simulation model was used to investi-gate this problem. The computational process involved a two-step optimization scheme in which an outer computational loop was used to optimize the mag-nitude and timing of the muscle torques that generate the arm's motion, and an inner computational loop was used to determine the optimal angle and speed of the ball at the moment of release. The inner optimization loop revealed that Brancazio's (1981) and Hay's (1993) approaches to determining the optimal release angle produced identical results. The lowered seated height of the wheelchair basketball player required that the ball be released at a steeper angle with greater vertical velocity, and hence the need for greater shoulder torque. For the wheelchair player, the peak shoulder flexion torque generated by the model was reduced by approximately 43% when the upper arm was initially positioned at an angle approximately 40° below the horizontal, as compared to being positioned at an angle of 10° above the horizontal. For the wheelchair player, the optimal release angle and speed for a ball released at a horizontal distance of 4.09 m from the center of the basket, and 1.30 m below the rim, was computed to be 53.8° and 7.4 m/s, respectively. The enjoyment we derive from participating in a sport is enhanced by im-proving our competence in that sport (Whiddon & Reynolds, 1983). In order to be successful in a sport, one must become proficient in the fundamental skills of the game (Malone, Nielsen, & Steadward, 2000). Many studies have addressed the optimal patterns for sport skills in order to increase this competence in athletes. However, the area of wheelchair sport has been greatly overlooked. Currently there are few published studies which have attempted to optimize skills in wheelchair sport (Goosey-Tolfrey, Butterworth, & Morriss, 2002).Journal of Applied Biomechanics 01/2004; 20:153-166.
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ABSTRACT: Children normally lack the strength and physical characteristics required to use the equipment and rules of adult sports. Studies that utilise a test have shown that changes in the ball mass may improve shot performance and other ball handling skills. The objective of this study was to analyse with which ball participants played a higher number of one-on-one situations in basketball. The participants were 54 nine to eleven-year-old boys from six teams. We established three situations in which the participants played four games with each of the following balls: (a) regulation ball (485 g, 69–71 cm), (b) ball of smaller mass (440 g, 69–71 cm), and (c) ball of greater mass (540 g, 69–71 cm). The procedures that were followed were: (a) defining the variable, the dependent variable was the number of one-on-one situations; (b) instructing the observers and obtaining reliability, reliability was above 0.95; (c) monitoring the properties of the ball and filming the games; and (d) recording (four observers) the data from the observation of the game videos. The results reflected statistically significant differences for the number of one-on-one situations χ (2, N=1,858)=44.510, P=0.000, indicating an increase when using the 440 g ball in comparison to the regulation ball, the 540 g ball, and the results of the reviewed studies.European Journal of Sport Science - EUR J SPORT SCI. 01/2012; 12(3):225-230.
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ABSTRACT: Video-based training combined with flotation tank recovery may provide an additional stimulus for improving shooting in basketball. A pre-post controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a 3 wk intervention combining video-based training and flotation tank recovery on three-point shooting performance in elite female basketball players. Players were assigned to an experimental (n=10) and control group (n=9). A 3 wk intervention consisted of 2 x 30 min float sessions a week which included 10 min of video-based training footage, followed by a 3 wk retention phase. A total of 100 three-point shots were taken from 5 designated positions on the court at each week to assess three-point shooting performance. There was no clear difference in the mean change in the number of successful three-point shots between the groups (-3%; ±18%, mean; ±90% confidence limits). Video-based training combined with flotation recovery had little effect on three-point shooting performance.International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 01/2013; 13(1):1-10. · 0.54 Impact Factor