[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes recent research on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)--which might be described as the "other, forgotten genome". Recent studies suggest the possible pathophysiological significance of mtDNA in schizophrenia and neurodegenerative and mood disorders. Decreased activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been implicated in both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and while age-related accumulation of mtDNA deletions has been suggested as a possible cause, there is no concrete evidence that particular mtDNA polymorphisms are responsible. In schizophrenia, the activity and/or mRNA expression of complex IV are involved, but the direction of the alteration is not the same and there is no evidence linking schizophrenia with mtDNA. In bipolar disorder, there is some evidence of parent-of-origin effects and association with mtDNA polymorphisms but further investigation is needed to elucidate the role of mtDNA in mental disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in bipolar disorder based on the following lines of evidence: 1) Abnormal brain energy metabolism measured by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that is, decreased intracellular pH, decreased phosphocreatine (PCr), and enhanced response of PCr to photic stimulation. 2) Possible role of maternal inheritance in the transmission of bipolar disorder. 3) Increased levels of the 4977-bp deletion in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in autopsied brains. 4) Comorbidity of affective disorders in certain types of mitochondrial disorders, such as autosomal inherited chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and mitochondrial diabetes mellitus with the 3243 mutation. Based on these findings, we searched for mtDNA mutations/ polymorphisms associated with bipolar disorder and found that 5178C and 10398A polymorphisms in mtDNA were risk factors for bipolar disorder. The 5178C genotype was associated with lower brain intracellular pH. mtDNA variations may play a part in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder through alteration of intracellular calcium signaling systems. The mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis, which comprehensively accounts for the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, is proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested the presence of central nervous system involvement manifesting as cognitive impairment in diseases traditionally confined to the peripheral nervous system. The aim of this review is to highlight the character of clinical, genetic, neurofunctional, cognitive, and psychiatric deficits in neuromuscular disorders. A high correlation between cognitive features and cerebral protein expression or function is evident in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy (Steinert disease), and mitochondrial encephalomyopathies; direct correlation between tissue-specific protein expression and cognitive deficits is still elusive in certain neuromuscular disorders presenting with or without a cerebral abnormality, such as congenital muscular dystrophies, congenital myopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, adult polyglucosan body disease, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. No clear cognitive deficits have been found in spinal muscular atrophy and facioscapulohumeral dystrophy.
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