[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in bipolar disorder based on the following lines of evidence: 1) Abnormal brain energy metabolism measured by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that is, decreased intracellular pH, decreased phosphocreatine (PCr), and enhanced response of PCr to photic stimulation. 2) Possible role of maternal inheritance in the transmission of bipolar disorder. 3) Increased levels of the 4977-bp deletion in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in autopsied brains. 4) Comorbidity of affective disorders in certain types of mitochondrial disorders, such as autosomal inherited chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and mitochondrial diabetes mellitus with the 3243 mutation. Based on these findings, we searched for mtDNA mutations/ polymorphisms associated with bipolar disorder and found that 5178C and 10398A polymorphisms in mtDNA were risk factors for bipolar disorder. The 5178C genotype was associated with lower brain intracellular pH. mtDNA variations may play a part in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder through alteration of intracellular calcium signaling systems. The mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis, which comprehensively accounts for the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, is proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is responsible for producing much of the adenosine triphosphate that is required by cells. The OXPHOS pathway incorporates over 100 polypeptides whose genes are located in either the nuclear DNA or the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The expression of these genes and the assembly of the five OXPHOS enzyme complexes (complexes I to V) is a highly ordered and coordinated process. A broad array of human diseases result from mutations in either the nuclear or mtDNA genes or even in the systems that coordinate their interactions. Consequently, OXPHOS diseases can have complex inheritance patterns and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations.
Seminars in Neurology 10/2001; 21(3):237-50. DOI:10.1055/s-2001-17941 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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